Wednesday, 22 February 2012

list of maps for 9th and 10th

Summative Assessment-II
March 2012
List of Map Items for Examination
A. History

Chapter 3 : Nationalism in India - (1918-1930)
(i) For locating and labelling/Identification on Outline Political Map of India
1. Indian National Congress Session : Calcutta (Sep. 1920), Nagpur (Dec. 1920), Madras (1927) and Lahore (1929).
2. Important Centres of Indian National Movement
(Non-cooperation and Civil Disobedience Movement)
(i) Champaran (Bihar) : Movement of Indigo Planters
(ii) Kheda (Gujarat) : Peasant Satyagraha
(iii) Ahmedabad (Gujarat) : Cotton Mill Workers Satyagraha
(iv) Amritsar (Punjab) : Jallianwala Bagh incident.
(v) Chauri Chaura (UP) : calling off the NCM.
(vi) Bardoli (Gujarat) : no tax campaign.
(vii) Dandi (Gujarat) : Civil Disobedience Movement.

B. Geography

Chapter 5 : Mineral and Energy Resources
Minerals : (Identification only)
(i) Iron ore mines : Mayurbhanj, Durg, Bailadila, Bellary and Kudremukh.
(ii) Mica mines : Ajmer, Beawar, Nellore, Gaya and Hazaribagh.
(iii) Coal mines : Raniganj, Jharia, Bokaro, Talcher, Korba, Singrauli, Singareni and Neyveli
(iv) Oil Fields : Digbi, Naharkatia, Mumbai High, Bassien, Kalol and Ankaleshwar.
Power Plants : (Locating and Labelling only)
(a) Thermal : Namrup, Talcher, Harduaganj, Korba, Uran, Ramagundam, Vijaywada and Tuticorin.
(b) Nuclear : Narora, Rawat Bhata, Kakrapara, Tarapur, Kaiga and Kalpakkam.

Chapter 6 : Manufacturing Industries
For Locating and Labelling Only
(i) Cotton Textile Industries : Mumbai, Indore, Ahmedabad, Surat, Kanpur, Coimbatore and Madurai.
(ii) Woollen Industry : Srinagar, Amritsar, Ludhiana, Panipat, Mirzapur and Jamnagar.
(iii) Silk Industry : Anantnag, Srinagar, Murshidabad and Mysore.
(iv) Iron and Steel Plants : Burnpur, Durgapur, Bokaro, Jamshedpur, Rourkela, Bhilai,
Vijaynagar, Bhadravati, and Salem.
(v) Software Technology Parks : Mohali, Noida, Jaipur, Gandhinagar, Indore, Mumbai,
Pune, Kolkata, Bhubaneshwar, Vishakhapatnam, Hyderabad, Bangalore, Mysore,
Chennai and Thiruvanantapuram.

Chapter 7 : Lifelines of National Economy
Identification Only :
Golden Quadrilateral, North-South Corridor and East-West Corridor
National Highways : NH-1, NH-2 and NH-7
Location and Labelling :
(i) Major Ports : Kandla, Mumbai, Jawahar Lal Nehru, Marmagao, New Mangalore,
Kochi, Tuticorin, Chennai, Vishakhapatnam, Paradip, Haldia and Kolkata.
(ii) International Airports : Amritsar (Raja Sansi), Delhi (Indira Gandhi International);
Mumbai (Chhatrapati Shivaji), Thiruvanatapuram (Nedimbacherry) ; Chennai (Meenam
Bakkam), Kolkata (Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose) and Hyderabad
Note : Items of locating and labelling may also be given for identification

Sample Question Paper
Summative Assessment- II
March - 2012
List of Map Items for Examination
TIME : 3 Hrs MM : 90
Chapter 4 (Climate)
(Meteorological Stations)
For Location & Labelling : Thiruvananthapuram, Chennai, Jodhpur, Jaipur, Bangalore,
Mumbai, Kolkata, Leh, Shillong, Delhi, Nagpur.
Chapter 5 (Natural Vegetation & Wild life)
(a) For Location & Labelling : (i) National Parks : Corbett , Kaziranga, Ranthambhor,
Dachigam, Rajaji, Shivpuri, Kanha Kisli, Simlipal, Keoladeo Guindy, Bandipur,
(ii) Wild life Sanctuaries : Sariska, Mudumalai, Periyar, Chandaka.
(b) For Identification : Forest Zones : Tropical Evergreen Forests, Tropical Thorn
Forests, Mangrove Forests, Tropical Deciduous Forests, Montane Forests.
Chapter 6 (Population)
(a) For Location & Labelling : The state having highest density of population.
The state having lowest density of population.
The state having highest sex ratio.
The state having lowest sex ratio.
The most populous state of India.
The most sparsely populated state of India.
Note : Items for location & Labelling may be asked for identification.

9th and 10th SA-2 sample papers

Social Science
Sample Question Paper
Summative Assessment II
Class X
Time allowed : 3 hours Maximum Marks : 80
General Instructions :
1. The question paper has 36 questions in all. All questions are compulsory.
2. Marks are indicated against each question.
3. Questions from serial number 1-16 are multiple choice Questions (MCQs) of 1 mark each.
4.Every MCQ is provided with four alternatives. Write the correct or the most appropriate alternative in your answer book.
5. Questions from serial number 17 to 29 are 3 marks questions. Answer of these questions should not exceed 80 words each
6. Questions from serial number 30 to 34 are 4 marks questions. Answer of these questions should not exceed 100 words each
7. Question number 35 is a map question of 2 marks from History and Question number 36 is. a map question of 3 marks from Geography.

1. Which one of the following is not true regarding the conservative regimes set up in 1815?
(a) They did not tolerate criticism regarding the legitimacy of autocratic governments.
(b) Most of them imposed censorship on press.
(c) They believed in the established traditional institutions like Monarchy Church etc.
(d) They favoured the idea of liberty and freedom.
Why did the ‘Go East Movement’ become popular in Vietnam during the first decade of 20th Century?
(a) Vietnamese students went to Japan to acquire education.
(b) They went to Japan to learn Japanese language.
(c) They went to get lucrative jobs.
(d) They looked for foreign arms and helped to drive away the French from Vietnam.
2. Which one of the following is not true regarding the ‘Balkan Problem’?
(a) The Balkan states were very jealous of each other.
(b) Each state wanted to gain more territory at the expense of others.
(c) The Balkans was also the scene of big power rivalry.
(d) The Balkans was not under the control of Ottoman Empire.
Which one of the following is not true regarding the regime of Ngo-Dinh-Diem in
South Vietnam?
(a) He built a repressive and authoritarian government.
(b) He laid the foundation of a democratic form of government.
(c) Any one who opposed him was jailed and killed.
(d) He permitted christianity but outlawed Buddhism.
3. Why did General Dyer open fire on the peaceful gathering at Jallianwala Bagh on 13th April, 1919?
(a) General Dyer wanted to enforce martial law very strictly in Amritsar.
(b) He wanted to create a feeling of terror and awe in the minds of satyagrahis.
(c) He wanted to demoralise the local congress leaders.
(d) He wanted to gain prominence in the eyes of British government.
4. Why did Gandhiji begin fast unto death when Dr. B.R. Ambedkar demanded separate electorate for Dalits?
(a) Separate electorates would create division in the society.
(b) Separate electorates would slow down the process of integration into society.
(c) With separate electorates, Dalits would gain respect in society.
(d) The condition of dalits would become better.
5. Which one of the following minerals belongs to the category of ferrous mineral?
(a) Gold (b) Copper
(c) Manganese (d) Bauxite
6. Which one of the following states is the largest producer of bauxite in India?
(a) Orissa (b) Gujarat
(c) Jharkhand (d) Maharashtra
7. Which one of the following factors plays the most dominant role in industrial location in a region?
(a) Availability of raw material
(b) Cheap and skilled labour
(c) Nearness of the market
(d) Least Cost.
8. Which one of the following groups of cities is connected by the National Highway No. 7.
(a) Delhi- Amritsar (b) Delhi- Kolkata
(c) Delhi- Mumbai (d) Varanasi- Kanyakumari
9. Identify the element which is NOT shared both by the movement in Nepal and the struggle in Bolivia.
(a) A political conflict that led to popular struggle.
(b) The struggle involved mass mobilisation
(c) It was about the foundations of the country’s politics.
(d) It involved critical role of political organisation.
10. Which one of the following political parties grew out of a movement?
(a) Communist Party of India. (b) Asom Gana Parishad.
(c) All India Congress (d) Bahujan Samaj Party
11. Which one of the following is NOT a function of political parties?
(a) Parties contest elections
(b) Parties do not shape public opinion
(c) Parties put forward different policies and programmes
(d) Parties play a decisive role in making laws for the country.
12. Which one of following statements does not reflect the right impact of ‘the Right to Information Act’?
(a) It supplements the existing laws that banned corruption
(b) It empowers the people to find out what is happening in the government.
(c) It enables the people to become law abiding good citizens.
(d) It acts as a watch dog of democracy.
13. Which among the following is an essential feature of barter system?
(a) A person holding money can easily exchange any commodity.
(b) It is based on double coincidence of wants.
(c) It is generally accepted as a medium of exchange of goods with money.
(d) It acts as a measure and store of value.
14. Which one of the following is a major reason that prevents the poor from getting loans from the banks?
(a) Lack of capital
(b) Not affordable due to high rate of interest
(c) Absence of collatoral security
(d) Absence of mediators
15. Which one of the following is a basic function of foreign trade?
(a) It flourishes trade in the domestic market
(b) Goods and services are produced for internal market
(c) It gives opportunity for the production to reach beyond the domestic market.
(d) Investment is done to expand the trade within the domestic markets.
16. Right to Information Act ensures its citizens to get all information of which one of the following? :
(a) About the Public Schools
(b) About the functions of government departments
(c) About all the technological institions
(d) About all private organisations and institutions 1
17. Explain any three reasons for the Greeks to win the Greek war of independence. OR 3x1=1
Explain any three features of scholars revolt in 1868 in Vietnam. 3x1=3
18. How did the Non-Cooperation Movement spread to the countryside? Explain giving three reasons. 3x1=3
19. What is the importance of energy resources? Give two examples each of conventional and non-conventional sources of energy. 1+1+1=3
20. Why is manufacturing sector considered the backbone of economic development of the country? Explain any three reasons with examples. 3x1=3
21. Explain any three factors which are responsible for localisation of jute textile mills mainly along the banks of the Hugli river. 3x1=3
22. How do the pressure groups and movements exert their influence on politics? Explain any three ways to do so. 3x1=3
23. Do democracies lead to a just distribution of goods and opportunities? Justify your answer by three suitable arguments. 3x1=3
24. “Most destructive feature of democracy is that its examination never gets over.” Support the statement with three appropriate arguments. 3x1=3
25. Suggest any three broad guidelines that can be kept in mind while devising ways and means for political reforms in India. 3x1=3
26. Describe any three factors which have enabled globalisation in India. 3x1=3
27. Explain any three features of MNCs. 3x1=1
28. Explain any three ways in which a consumer is exploited. 3x1=3
29. Explain any three consumer’s rights as user of goods and services. 3x1=3
30. Explain any four measures and practices introduced by revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people. 4x1=4
Who was the founder of Hoa Hao movement? Explain his contribution by giving any three points. 1+3=4
31. Explain any four features of Civil Disobedience movement of 1930. 4x1=4
32. How do physiographic and Economic factors influence the distribution pattern of railway network in our country? Explain with examples. 2+2=4
33. Why can’t modern democracies exist without political parties? Explain any four reasons. 4x1=4
34. Which are the two groups of various sources of credit in India?
Write any three features of each group. 1+3=3
35. Two features (A) and (B) are marked in the given outline political map of India. Identify these features with the help of the following information and write their correct names on the lines marked in the map:
(A) The place from where the movement of Indigo planters was started.
(B) The place where Indian National Congress Session 1927 was held. 2x1=2
Locate and label the following items with appropriate symbols on the same map.
(i) Kheda - The place of Peasant Satyagrah
(ii) Chauri Chaura - The centre of calling off the Non-Cooperation Movement. 2x1=2


Social Science
Marking Scheme
Class X
1. (d) or (d) 2. (d) or (b) 3. (b) 4. (b) 5. (c) 6. (a)
7. (d) 8. (d) 9. (c) 10. (b) 11. (b) 12. (c)
13. (b) 14. (c) 15. (c) 16. (b)
17. Reasons for winning the war :
(1) The growth of revolutionary nationalism in Europe sparked of a struggle for
independence amongst the Greeks.
(2) Nationalism in Greece got the support from other Greeks living in exile.
(3) West Europeans had sympathies for ancient Greek Culture.
(4) Poets & artists lauded Greece as the cradle of European civilisation & mobilized
public spirit in support of Greek struggle against a Muslim empire.
(5) The English poet, Lord Byron organised funds and went to fight in the war.
(6) The treaty of Constantinople of 1832 recognised Greece as an independent state.
(7) Any other relevant point.
(Any three points to be explained).
Scholars Revolt :
(1) Scholars Revolt was an early movement against French control and spread of

(2) This revolt was led by the officials at the imperial court angered by the spread of Catholicism and French power.
(3) They led a general uprising in Ngu An and Ha Tien provinces where thousands of
Catholics were killed.
(4) This movement served to inspire other patriots to rise against the French.
(Any three points to be explained). . Spread of Non Cooperation Movement:
(1) The peasants had to do begar and work at landlords’ farms without any payment.
(2) The peasants demanded reduction of land revenue and abolition of begar.
(3) The tenents had no security of tenure and were regularly evicted from land.
(4) In Awadh Baba Ramchandra led the movement.
(5) Any other relevant point.
(Any three points to be explained).
19. Importance of energy resources :
(1) It is required for all activities
(2) It is needed to cook, to provide light and heat.
(3) It is highly required for transport and communication
(4) Industries are closely related to energy
Conventional sources: Firewood, cattle dung, coal, petroleum, gas etc.
Non-Conventional Sources : Solar, Wind, Tidal, Geothermal, biogas and atomic energy.
20. (1) Manufacturing sector helps in modernising agriculture.
(2) It also reduces the heavy dependence of people on agriculture.
(3) It provides jobs to the large number of people.
(4) It reduces poverty from the country.
(6) Export of manufactured goods expands trade and commerce.
(7) Export brings foreign exchange.
(8) Transformation of raw material into a wide variety of furnished goods also provides
higher cost.
(Explanation of any three points with examples).
21. Factors responsible for location of Jute textiles.
(1) Proximity of the jute producing areas.
(2) Inexpensive water transport, supported by a good network of railways and roadways.
(3) Abundance of water for processing raw jute.
(4) Cheap labour is available from West-Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and Utter Pradesh.
(5) Kolkata port provides facilities for export of jute goods.
(6) Any other relevant point.
(Any three points to be explained).
22. Ways to influence politics
(1) They try to gain public support and sympathy for their goals.
(2) They often organise protest activities.
(3) They employ professional lobbyists or sponsor expensive advertisements.
(4) Some of the pressure groups are either formed by leaders of political parties or led by them.
(Any three points to be explained).
23. In actual life, we find that democracy does not lead to just distribution of goods and opportunities.
(1) Although individuals have political equality, we find growing economic inequalities.
(2) A small number of ultra-rich enjoy a highly disproportionate show of wealth and incomes.
(3) The income of those at the bottom of the society is declining so much so that it becomes difficult to meet their basic needs, such as food, clothing, housing etc.
(4) Although the poor constitute a large proportion of voters, yet democratically elected
governments do not provide them opportunities on equal footing.
(Any three points). Note : If a candidate writes ‘yes’ to the answer, he/she has to give appropriate arguments like the effects of fundamental Rights etc.
24. Suitable Arguments:
(1) As people get some benefits of democracy, they ask for more.
(2) People always come up with more expectations from the democratic set up.
(3) They also have complaints against democracy.
(4) More and more suggestions and complaints by the people is also a testimony to the
success of democracy.
(5) A public expression of dissatisfaction with democracy shows the success of the
democratic project.
(Any three points)
25. Broad Guidelines
(1) The changes in laws should be carefully devised.
(2) Any legal change must carefully look at what results it will have on politics.
(3) Democratic reforms are to be brought about principally through political practices.
(4) Any proposal for political reforms should think not only about what is good solution but also about who will implement it and how?
(Any three points)
26. Following factors have enabled globalisation in India :
(1) Improvement in Transportation - This has made much faster the delivery of goods
across long distances possible at lower costs.
(2) Improvement in Information and Technology : It has played a major role in spreading
out production of services across countries. Telecommunication facilities are used to
contact one another around the world to access information instantly and to
communicate from remote areas.
Computers have now entered almost every field of activity. Internet also allows us to
send instant electronic mail across the world at negligible costs.
(3) Liberalisation : Nations have removed the barriers to foreign trade and foreign
investment and thus promoted and facilitated globalisations.
4. Any other relevant point.
(Any three points)
27. (1) Features of MNCs : MNC s operate in more than one nation.
(2) They bring latest technology.
(3) MNCs have huge financial resources.
(4) The most common route for MNC investment is to buy up local companies and then to expand production.
(5) MNCs have tremendous power to determine price, quality, delivery and labour
conditions for these distant producers.
(6) Any other relevant point.
(Any three points to be highlighted)
28. Consumer is exploited when traders :
(1) Charge higher prices.
(2) Follow Unfair trade practices
(3) Weighs less than they should.
(4) Self Adulterated goods.
(5) Self Defective goods.
(6) Any other relevant point.
Any three points to be explained
29. Consumer has following rights.
(1) Right to Safety : The consumer has the right to be protected against the marketing of goods which have hazards to health, life and property.
(2) Right to be informed : Consumer has the right to know important facts and information about the goods and services they purchase.
(3) Right to choose : The consumer has the right to buy the product of his choice.
(4) Right to seek Redressal : The consumer has the right to seek redressal against
unfair trade practices or exploitation.
(5) Any other relevant point.
30. Measures & practices introduced by revolutionaries :
(1) The ideas of la-patrie & le-citoyen emphasised the nation of united community enjoying equal rights under the constitution.
(2) New French flag, the tricolour was chosen to replace the former royal standard
(3) The Estates General was elected by the body of active citizens and renamed the
National Assembly.
(4) New hymns were composed and martyrs commemorated.
(5) Internal customs and duties were abolished.
(6) Uniform system of weights and measures were adopted.
(7) Regional dialects were discouraged and French was written & spoken in Paris.
(8) Any other relevant points.

Hoa Hao movement : The founder of this movement was a man called Huynh Phu.
His Contribution : 1mark
1. He was always helpful to the poor people.
(2) His criticism against useless expenditure had a wide appeal.
(3) He also opposed the sale of girl brides.
(4) He opposed gambling and use of alcohol and opium.
(5) Any other relevant point.
(Any three points to be explained)
31. Features of Civil Disobedience movement
(1) The countrymen broke the salt law.
(2) They made salt and demonstrated in front of Govt. salt factories.
(3) Foreign clothes were boycotted.
(4) Liquor shops were picketed.
(5) Peasants refused to pay the land revenue.
(6) Village officials resigned their jobs.
(7) People violated forest laws.
(8) Any other relevant point.
(Any four points to be explained)
32. Physiographic Factors:
(1) Northern plains are vast level land. It provides the most favourable conditions to lay
down railway tracks.
(2) In the hilly terrains of the peninsular region railway tracks are laid through low hills
gaps, which increased the cost of construction of railway tracks.
(3) Himalayan mountainous regions are unfavourable for the construction of railway lines
due to high relief and sparse population.
(4) Desert region of western Rajasthan does not allow to develop railway lines in thar
(5) Swamps of Gujarat, forested tracks of Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Orissa and
Jharkhand are also not suited to construct railway lines.
Economic Factors:
(1) Railways are the principal mode of transportation for freight and passengers.
(2) Northern plains have high population density and rich agricultural resources.
(3) Plateau region of Chhota Nagpur is rich in mineral resources. As a result railway tracks are spread over the region.
(4) Industrial regions of the country directly linked with railway lines.
(5) Any other relevant point.
Any two points are to be explained 2x1=2

33. Reasons :
If there are no political parties in a democracy:
(1) Every candidate in the elections will be independent.
(2) No one will make promises to the people about any major policy change.
(3) The government may be formed, but its utility will remain be uncertain.
(4) Elected representatives will be accountable to their constituency only or locality only.
(5) No one will be accountable to the nation as a whole.
(6) Any other relewant point
(Any four points to be explained)
34. A . Formal sector Loans : Formal credit sector is known as organised sector. (ii) This sector provides loan at low rate of interest. (iii) This sector is supervised and controlled by Reserve Bank of India. (iv) It mainly includes : Commercial Banks :
Cooperative Society :
Informal Sector Loans :
(i) Informal credit sectors in India include credit given by unorganised sectors. (ii) These
sectors meet the credit needs of poor households. (iii) They charge high interest rate.
(iv) There is no organisation which supervises and controls the lending activities of
informal sector. (v) The main informal credit sources are : Local Money lenders, Traders
Employers, Relatives and Friends etc, Any other relevant point.
(Any three features)

Sample Question Paper
Summative Assessment- II
March - 2012
TIME : 3 Hrs Maximum Marks : 90
Instructions :
1. The question paper has 31 questions in all. All questions are compulsory.
2. Marks are indicated against each question.
3. Questions from serial number 1-10 are multiple choice questions (MCQ) of 1 mark each.
Every MCQ is provided with four alternatives. Write the correct alternative in your answer book.
4. Questions from serial number 11 to 22 are 3 marks questions. Answer of these questions should not exceed 80 words each.
5. Questions from serial number 23 to 30 are 5 marks questions. Answer of these questions should not exceed 120 words each.
6. Question number 31 is a map question of 4 marks from Geography only. After completion, attach the map inside your answer book.
1. Till the eighteenth century the shape of the cricket bat was in the shape of hockey stick. Choose the correct reason :
a) The ground was uneven.
b) The ball was bowled underarm along the ground.
c) There was no limit on the shape and the size of the bat.
d) It was easy to play in open ground.
Which combination was suggested by the Rabindra Nath Tagore for India's national dress?
a) Elements of Hindu and Muslim Dress.
b) Elements of Hindu and Parsi Dress.
c) Elements of Muslim and European Dress.
d) Elements of European and Hindu Dress.
2. Why is cricket match different from other sports? Choose the correct answer.
a) The match can go on for five days and still end in a draw.
b) The playing time is an hour and half.
c) The dimension of the playing area is specified.
d) The game gets completed in nine innings.
The red cap introduced by Jacobin Club symbolized :
a) Liberty
b) Equality
c) Broken Chain
d) Fraternity
3. Which one of the following types of forests is found in the Ganga-Bramputra Delta?
a) Thorny forest
b) Montane forest
c) Mangrove forest
d) Tropical Rain forest
4. Which one of the following provides an ideal habitat for the animal 'Yak'?
a) Sunderbans
b) Swampy and marshy lands of Assam
c) Rann of Kutch
d) Freezing high altitudes of Ladakh
5. Which of the following statements is against the democratic process of elections?
a) Parties and candidates should be free to contest elections.
b) Elections must be held regularly immediately after the term is over.
c) The right to vote should be given to the selected people only.
d) Elections should be conducted in a free and fair manner.
6. Which one of the following is a violation of the right to life or personal liberty?
a) The arrested person was informed about the reason of his arrest.
b) He was produced before the court within 24 hours of his arrest.
c) He was not allowed to consult his lawyer.
d) He was shown the warrant before arrest.
7. Which one of the following rights is available to the citizens of India and not to the citizens of Saudi Arabia?
a) The country is ruled by a hereditary king.
b) Citizens cannot form political parties.
c) Women are subjected to many public restrictions.
d) Citizens enjoy the freedom of religion.
8. Which one of the following is not considered as a social indicator of poverty?
a) Illiteracy level.
b) Lack of access of health care.
c) Inadequate safe drinking water.
d) Ample job opportunities.
9. Which one of the following does not ensure food security to the people?
a) Enough food is available for all the persons.
b) All persons have the capacity to buy food.
c) Extremely inadequate purchasing power.
d) There is no barrier on access to food.
10. Which Institution was set up by the Maharashtra Academy of Development Science (ADS) to facilitate a network of NGOs in different regions?
a) Gramin Bank
b) Grain Bank
c) Commercial Bank
d) Food Corporation of India
11. What is shifting cultivation? Why did the European foresters discourage the practice of shifting cultivation? 1+2=3
How did the Pastoralists cope with the changes in the modern world? 3x1=3
Explain the impact of introduction of machines in agriculture on poor farmers.
12. State any three important changes introduced in the game of cricket during the 19th century? 3x1=3
What was the main objective of Sumptuary laws? Mention any two restrictions
imposed under these laws.
13. How is the climate of India governed by the atmospheric conditions? Explain with three suitable examples. 3x1=3
14. Describe any three features of advancing monsoon season. 3x1=3
15. In which region are the tropical thorny forests and shrubs found in India? Mention any four characterstics of such type of vegetation. 1+2=3
16. Explain three main processes of change of population in India. 3x1=3
17. How does the Election Commission of India regulate campaigns of political parties and candidates to ensure fair and equal chances to compete? 3x1=3
18. What are 'Reserved Constituencies'? Why was the system of reserved constituencies introduced in India? 1+2=3
19. Explain any three powers of the Prime Minister of India as Head of the State.
20. Explain with examples how the poverty line is estimated in India? 1½+1½=3
21. Explain any three causes for the widespread poverty in India. 3x1=3
22. Describe the three dimensions of food security. 3x1=3
23. Explain any five ideas of Dietech Brandis for management of forests in India during British period. 5x1=5
Why are Maasais of Africa continuously losing their grazing grounds? Explain any five reasons.
How did the Enclosure Movement benefit Britain. Explain any fine benefits. 5x1=5
24. Explain any five reasons for increase in deforestation under colonial rule.
What was the impact of the colonial policies on the life of the pastoralists. Explain any five. 5x1=5
Why were the peasants not willing to grow opium in their fields? 5x1=5
25. "The Battle of Waterloo was won on the playing field of Eton". Justify the statement with any five suitable arguments. 5x1=5
"The introduction of western style clothing in the 19th centuary in India met with
severe reactions in different ways". Support the statement with suitable arguments. 5
26. Describe any five provisions made in the National Population Policy of 2000.
27. Name the two houses of Parliament in India. Which of the two houses in more
powerful? Justify your answer with any three suitable arguments. 1+1+3=5
28. "Rights are necessary for the very sustenance of a democracy". Give any five
arguments to support the statement. 5x1=5
29. Explain five important anti-poverty measures undertaken by the Government of
India. 5x1=5
30. What is buffer stock? Why is the buffer stock created by the government?
31.a)Two features A and B are shown in the political outline map of India. Identify these features with the help of following information and write their correct names on the line marked on the map. 2x1=2
A- Type of forest
B- The state having lowest sex-ratio
b) On the same political outline map of India locate and label the following items with appropriate symbols:
(i) Thiruvananthapuram - A weather station
(ii) Corbett National Park 2x1=2

Marking Scheme
Summative Assessment- II
March - 2012
TIME : 3 Hrs MM : 80 Marks
1 ______________________ (b) or (a) 1
2 ______________________ (a) or (a) 1
3 ______________________ (c) 1
4 ______________________ (d) 1
5 ______________________ (c) 1
6 ______________________ (c) 1
7 ______________________ (d) 1
8 ______________________ (d) 1
9 ______________________ (c) 1
10 _____________________ (b) 1
11 _____________________ (b) 1
12 _____________________ (c) 1
13 _____________________ (c) 1
14 _____________________ (b) 1
15 _____________________ (c) 1
16 _____________________ (d) 1
11. (i) In shifting cultivation, parts of the forest are cut and burnt in rotation. Seeds ares own in the ashes. Such plots are cultivated for a couple of years and then left follow to regain fetility.

ii) Europeans discouraged practice of shifting cultivation:
1. Considered the practice harmful for the forests.
2. Lands used for shifting cultivation could not be used to grow trees for railway
3. Danger of the flames spreading and burning valuable timber.
4. Difficulty in the calculation of taxes.
Any other relevant point
Any two points
Pastoralists coped with the changes by the following ways.
1. Reduced the number of cattle.
2. Moved to new pasture lands.
3. Became agriculturalist.
4. Became traders.
Any other relevant point
Any three points
Impact of introduction of machine in agriculture on poor farmers-
1. It brought misery to poor farmers.
2. They came under debt.
3. They had to leave their farms.
4. Look for alternate jobs.
5. Difficulty in finding jobs.
Any other relevant point.
Any three points.
12. Changes in the game of cricket-
1. The exact circumference of the ball was specified.
2. Protective equipment like pads & gloves became available.
3. Boundaries were introduced where previously all shots had to be run.
4. Over arm bowling became legal.
Any other relevant point.
Any three points

Objective of Sumptuary laws was to control the behaviour of those considered social inferiors.

1. Preventing them from wearing certain clothes.
2. Consuming certain foods & beverages.
3. Hunting game in certain areas.
Any other relevant point.
Any two points to be mentioned 2
13. The climate of India is governed by the following atmospheric conditions.
a) Pressure and surface winds.
b) Upper air circulation.
c) Western cyclonic disturbances and tropical cyclones.
(a) Development of low and high pressure during different seasons and the consequent development and pattern of wind movements.
(b) Development and the position of Jet stream during different seasons.
(c) Inflow of western disturbances during winters and the development of tropical cyclones over the seas. Explanation of each point. 3x1=3
14. Features of Advancing Monsoon:
(i) June to September is the period of advancing monsoon.
(ii) Development of monsoon low pressure trough.
(iii) Formation of south west monsoon winds.
(iv) Distribution of rainfull across the country.
(v) Breaks in monsoon.
(vi) Known for uncertainties.
Any other relevant feature
Any three points to be explained
(ix) The Monsoon is known for its uncertainties. The alternation of dry and wet spells vary in intensity, frequency and duration. It causes heavy floods in one part and droughts in the other.
(x) It is often irregular in its arrival and its retreat.
Any three features.
15. Thorn forests and scrubs are found in the north western part of India including semi-arid areas of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh and Haryana.
Characteristics :
(i) Found in regions with less than 70cm of rainfall
(ii) Trees are scattered and have long roots penetrating deep into soil to get moisture.
(iii) Stems are succulent to conserve water.
(iv) Leaves are thick and small to minimise evaporation.
16. Any two points:
In India
(i) Birth Rate is the number of live births per thousand persons in a year. It is a major component of growth of population. In India birth rates have always been higher than death rates.
(ii) Death Rate is the number of deaths per thousand persons in a year. Rapid decline in death rate is the main cause of rapid growth in population rapidly. Since 1981 birth rate has also started declining resulting in a gradual decline in the rate of population growth.
(iii) Migration is the movement of people across regions and territories. Migration can be internal or international. Internal migration does not change the size of the population within the nation. Migration plays a very significant role in changing the composition and distribution of population.3x1=3
17. According to our election commission laws no party or candidate can:
i) Bribe or threaten voters
ii) Appeal to voters in the name of caste or religion
iii) Use government resources for election campaign ;
iv) Spend not more than 25 lakhs in a constituency for Lok Sabha election or 10 lakhs in a constituency in an assembly election. 3x1=3

18. Reserved Constituencies:
Some constituencies are reserved for people who belong to the Scheduled Castes (SC) and Scheduled Tribes (ST). In these constituencies, only someone who belongs to these categories can contest election.
Arguments for introduction of Reserved Contituencies.
(i) The Constitution makers were worried that in an open electoral competition, certain weaker sections may not stand a good chance to get elected to Lok Sabha and the State Legislative Assemblies.
(ii) They may not have the required resources, education and contacts to contest and win elections against others.
(iii) If the reservation is not done, our Parliament and Assemblies would be deprived of the voice of a significant section of our population.
19. Powers of the Prime Minister as Head of the State.The Prime minister:
(i) chairs cabinet meetings.
(ii) coordinates the work of different departments.
(iii) exercises general supervision of different ministries.
(iv) distributes and redistributes work to the ministers.
(v) has the power to dismiss ministers.
(vi) his/her decisions are final in case of disagreement between the departments.
Any other relevant point
Any three points to be explained
20. The poverty line is estimated in India.
The common method used to estimate poverty line in India is based on income or consumption method.
Income Method - For the year 2000, the poverty line for a person was fixed at Rs 328 per month for the rural areas and Rs. 454 for the urban areas.
Consumption Method - The accepted average calorie requirement in India is 2400 calories per person per day in rural areas and 2100 calories per person per day in urban areas
21. Causes for the widespread poverty in India:
i) Low level of economic development under colonial rule.
ii) Less job opportunities
iii) Low growth rate of income.
iv) High growth rate of population.
v) Low per capital income
Any other relevant point
Any three points to be explained
22. Food security has following dimensions:-
1. Availability of food means food production within the country, food imports and the
previous years stock stored in government granaries.
2. Accessibility means food is within reach of every person
3. Affordability implies that an individual has enough money to buy sufficient, safe and
nutritious food to meet one's dietary needs.
Any other relevant point
Any three points
23. Five Ideas of Dietrich Brandis for Management of forest in India
i) Training people in the science of conservation
ii) Framing rules about the use of forest resources
iii) Restriction on felling of trees
iv) Restriction on grazing
v) Preservation of forest for timber production
Anyother relevant point.
Any five points to be explained.
The main reasons for the continuous loss of grazing lands of Maasais:
(i) Europeon imperial powers scrambled for territorial possessions in Africa, slicing up the region into different colonies.
(ii) Maasai land was divided into British Kenya and German Tanganyika.
(iii) The best grazing lands were gradually taken over by white settlements andMaasais were pushed into a small area.
(iv) The Maasais lost about 60 percent of their pre-coloical lands.
(v) They were confined to an arid zone with uncertain rainfall and poor pastures.
(vi) Large areas of grazing land were turned into game reserves.
Any other relevant point.
Any five points to be explained.
(i) Grain production grew as quickly as population.
(ii) Landlords sliced up pasture lands, carved up open fields, cut up forest commons, took over marshes, and turned larger areas into agricultural fields.
(iii) Enclosures were seen as necessity to make long term investments on land.
(iv) Planned crop rotation to improve their soil
(v) It also allowed the rich landowners to expand the land under their control and
produce more for the markets.
(vi) Any other relevant point.
Any five benefits to be explained.
24. Five reasons for increase in deforerstation under the colonial rule:
i) Increase in demand for food.
ii) Forests were considered unproductive by the colonial rulers.
iii) Increase in need for raw materials for industrial production.
iv) Spread of railways
v) Development of plantation
Any other relevant point
Any five points to be explained
Impact of the colonial policies on the life of Pastoralists148
i) Loss of grazing land.
ii) Loss of cattle.
iii) Decline in the quality pastures.
iv) Shortage of forage for animals.
v) Death of cattle or
Any other relevant point
Any five points to be explained
The Peasants were not willing to grow opium in their fields.
i) The crop had to be grown on their best lands.
ii) Many cultivators owned no land.
iii) The rents charged on good lands near village was very high.
iv) Growing of opium was a difficult process.
v) The price given by government was low.
Any other relevant point
Any five points to be explained
25. (i) Britain's military success was based on the values taught to school boys in its public schools.
(ii) Eton was the most famous of these schools.
(iii) The English boarding school was the institution that trained English boys for
careers in the military, the civil service & the church.
(iv) Men like Thomas Arnold, head master of the famous Rugby School and founder of the modern public school system, saw team support like cricket and rugby not just as outdoor play, but as an organised way of teaching English boys the discipline.
(v) It taught the English boys, the importance of codes of honour and the leadership qualities that helped then build and run the British empire.
Any other relevant point.
Many Indians reacted differently by the introduction of western style clothing.
(i) The wealthy Parsis of western India were among the first to adapt western style of
clothing. Baggy trousers and the Phenta (or hat) were added to long colourless coats with boots and a walking stick to look like a gentleman.
(ii) To some, western clothes were a sign of modernity and progress.
(ii) There were others who were convinced that western culture would lead to a loss of traditional cultural identity.
(iv) The use of western style clothes was taken as a sign of the world turning upside
(v) Some men resolved this dilemma by wearing western clothes without giving up
their Indian ones.
Anyother relevant point.
26. Provisions made in the National Population Policy 2000
i) Imparting compulsory school education upto 14 years of age.
ii) Reducing infant mortality rate to below 30 per 1000 live birth.
iii) Achieving universal immunisation of children against all vaccine preventable diseases.
iv) Raising marriage age for girls.
v) Making family welfare a people centred programme.
Any other relevant point.
27. Two Houses of Parliament in India:
i) Lok Sabha & Rajya Sabha
ii) Lok Sabha is more powerful.
iii) a. If both the houses disagree on an ordinary bill, the will of Lok Sabha will prevail in the joint session due to its larger number.
b. Lok Sabha enjoys more powers in money matter. For example a money bill can only be introduced in Lok Sabha.
c. Lok Sabha controls the Council of Ministers.
d. Only Lok Sabha can pass the no confidence motion against the Council of Ministers.
Any other relevant point
28. Rights are necessary for the sustenance of democracy because:
(i) Every citizen must have the right to vote and the right to be elected.
(ii) Every citizen should have the right to express his/her opinion.
(iii) Citizens have the right to form political parties.
(iv) Right to project minorities from the oppression of majority.
(v) Right to act as a check on misuse of government power.
Any other relevant point
Any five arguments to be given
29. Anti-Poverty Measures taken by teh Government of India.
1. National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) 2005
The Act provides 100 days assured employment every year to every rural household
in 200 districts.
2. National Food for Work Programme. (NFWP) 2004 was launched in 150 most backward districts
of the country. It is open to all rural poor who are in need of wage employment.
3. Prime Minister Rozgar Yogana (PMRY) 1993.
The aim is to create self employment opportunities for educated youth in rural areas and small towns.
4. Rural Empoyment Generation Programme (REGP) 1995
The aim to is to create self employment opportunities in rural areas.
5. Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yogana (SGSY) 1999.
It aims at bringing the poor families above poverty line by organizing them into self help groups through bank credit and government subsidy.
Any other relevant point
30. Buffer stock is the stock of foodgrains and rice procured by the government through Food Corporation
of India (FCI).
Buffer stock is created by the government :
(i) To distribute foodgrains in the deficit areas.
(ii) To use among the poorer strata of society at a lower price.
(iii) To resolve the problem of shortage of food during adverse weather conditions or during the periods of calamity.
(iv) Any other point to maintain food security
Any other relevant point
32. Reserved Constituencies:
Some constituencies are reserved for people who belong to the Scheduled Castes (SC) and Scheduled Tribes (ST). In these constituencies, only some one who belongs to these categories can contest for election.
Arguements for justification of the Concept
(i) The Constitution makers were worried that in an open electoral competition, certain weaker sections may not stand a good chance to get elected to Lok Sabha and the State Legislative Assemblies.
(ii) They may not have the required resources, education and contacts to contest and win elections against others.
(iii) If the reservation is not done, our Parliament and Assemblies would be deprived of the voice of a significant Section of our population.
33. (i) Parliaments all over the world make laws, change existing laws or abolish existing laws and replace them by new ones.
(ii) It exercises control over those who run the government.
(iii) Parliament controls all the money that government has.
(iv) Parliament is the highest forum of discussion and debate on public issues and national policies.
(v) Parliament can seek information on any matter.

Thursday, 16 February 2012

10th SA 2 political science

STANDARD X Chapter - 6

Page 71 – 74
Q1. Why do we need many political parties?
• Political parties are the most visible institutions in a democracy.
• Parties have become identified with social and political divisions.
• For ordinary citizens democracy is equal to political parties.
• Parties have become identified with social and political divisions.
• Political parties contest elections.
• They put forward different policies and programmes.
• They play decisive role in making laws for the country and form and run government.
• The parties that lose elections form opposition and form public opinion.
• Parties provide people access to government machinery and welfare schemes implemented by governments.
Q2. Give the broader meaning of political parties and their functions.
• Political party is a group of people who come to contest elections and hold power in the government.
• Parties reflect fundamental political divisions in a society. Parties are a part of the society and thus involve partisanship.
• A political party is a group of people who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government.
• They agree on some policies and programmes for the society with a view to promote the collective good.


• Parties contest elections.
• Parties put forward different policies and programmes and the voters chooses from them.
• Parties play a decisive role in making laws for a country.
• Parties form and run governments.
• Losing parties play the role of opposition.
• Parties shape public opinion.
• Parties provide people access to government machinery and welfare scheme.
Q3. What are the 3 components of political parties?
The leaders, the active members and the followers.
Q4. What is the major difference in selecting candidates in USA and India?
USA: The members and supporters of a party choose its candidates.
India: Top party leaders choose candidates for contesting elections.
Q5. What kind of policies can the political parties formulate?
A government is expected to base its policies on the line taken by the ruling party.
Q6. How do political parties form and run government?
Parties recruit leaders, train them and then make them ministers to run the government in the way they want.
Q7. Describe the role of opposition parties.
• Those parties that lose in the elections play the role of opposition to the parties in power.
• They voice different views and criticize government for its failures or wrong policies.
• They also mobilize opposition to the government.
Q8. How do political parties form public opinion?
• Political parties rise and highlight issues.
• Parties some times launch movements for the resolution of problems faced by the people.

Page 75 - 78
Q9. How many parties do we have in India?
• More than 750 parties are registered with the Election Commission of India.
• But only a handful of parties are effective in the race to win elections and form the government.
Q10. Which system of political parties is better option for its people and country?
Single party system: The country that has only one political party is called single party system. But this is not a democratic option.
Double party system: Some countries like USA has two party systems. Power usually changes between the 2 parties. But the people’s choice become limited.
Multi party system: In a country like India there are so many political parties and they make manifestos, form public opinions. These parties give a reasonable chance of coming to power either on their own strength or in alliance with others. This kind of system is called multiparty system.
Q11. What is coalition of political parties or what do you mean by alliance or front in multiparty
When several parties in a multiparty system join hand for the purpose of contesting elections and winning power. It is called as a alliance or front.
Q12. Why do we have multiparty system in India?
India has evolved a multiparty system because the social and geographical diversity is too large that it can not be easily absorbed by two or even three parties.
Q13. Discuss the crisis faced by the political parties.
• Political parties do not enjoy much trust among the people in south Asia.
• Political parties are one of the least trusted institutions all over the world.
• The number of political members have increased steadily decreasing the quality.
Page 79
Q14. Mention 2 kinds of political parties in India and also name any three political parties of each kind.
In India we have 2 kinds of political parties.
1. National party and 2. Regional party
Major national parties are: (i) Indian National Congress (INC), (ii) Bharatiya Janta Party, (iii) Bahujan Samajwadi party (BSP)
Major regional or state parties are : (i) Akali Dal in Punjab, (ii) Telugu Desam in Andhra Pradesh, (iii) Asom Gana Parishad in Assam.
Q15. How is a political party recognized as a National party? Explain in 3 points.
• Every political party is recognized and registered with election commission.
• Then these parties get a unique symbol.
• A party that secures 6 percent of total votes in Lok Sabha elections or Assembly elections in four states and wins at least 4 seats in the Lok Sabha is recognised as a national party.
Q16. When is a political party recognized as state party?
A party that secures at least 6 percent of total votes polled in an election to the Vidhan Sabha of a state and wins at least two seats in the Legislative Assembly is recognised as a state party.
Q17. Explain 4 challenges to political parties.
a. Lack of internal democracy: There is a tendency to concentrate power in one or a few leaders at the top parties. They do not hold organizational elections at regular intervals. In modern democracies personal loyalty to the leader has become more important than loyalty to the party.
b. Dynastic successions: Leaders at the top positions favour people close to them or their family members. This is not good for democracy since sons and daughters of the leaders occupy positions of power without any experience.
c. Growing role of money and muscle power: Most of the parties are focused only on winning elections. In some cases parties even support criminals who can win elections.
d. Lack of meaningful choice to voters: In modern democracies, the parties do not offer meaningful choice to voters. In our country the differences among all the major parties on the economic policies have reduced. Under these circumstances voters have no meaningful choice.
Q18. Mention any 4 characteristics that define parties.
• Parties aim to exercise government power by winning political power.
• Parties are organized bodies with a formal membership.
• Parties focus on major areas of government policies.
• The parties are united by a general ideological identity.

{Note: State parties are commonly known as Regional Parties. Some parties like Samajwadi party, Samata party etc.. have national level political organization with units in several states. Some of the state parties like National conference Biju Janata Dal and Shiromani Akali Dal are active in only one state.}
Q19. How do state parties help in strengthening federalism?
The rise of state parties have made the Parliament of India politically more diverse. No national party is able to get majority in Lok Sabha. As a result national parties are under compulsion to form an alliance with state parties. Thus state parties have got an opportunity to be a part of Union government. This has contributed to the strengthening of federalism and democracy in our country.

Q20. Suggest any 4 measures to reform political parties.
1. The political parties need to be reformed. Elected representatives in order to become ministers or for profit indulge in defection therefore constitution should amend laws to prevent MLAs and MPs from malpractice and changing parties.
2. The elections should be state funded. The Government should give money to parties to support their election expenses.
3. It should be made mandatory for political parties to give a minimum number of tickets to women candidates.
4. All parties should have regular elections and submit income tax returns.
5. Elections on the basis of money and power should not be allowed.

{Note: symbols of political parties}
1. Indian national congress – hand
2. Bahujan samajwadi party - eleplant
3. Bharatiya Janta Party - lotus
4. CPI (M) - hammer, sickle and star.
5. CPI - ear of corn and sickle
6. National Congress party - water
Q21. Write the features of
a. Indian National Congress. (INC)
b. Bharatiya Janata party: (BJP)
c. Bahujan Samajwadi party: (BSP)
d. National Congress party: (NCP)
e. Communist party of India – Marxists (CPI – M)
f. Communist party of India (CPI )
Indian National Congress.
• It is the oldest party in India.
• It was founded in 1885. It has seen many splits.
• It was led by eminent national leaders such as Gopal Krishana Gokhle, Jawahar Lal Nehru and Subhash Chandra Bose.
• Congress party believes in socialism, secularism and democracy.
• It believes in non – alignment, which means that India should not blindly support any foreign or big power.
• It emerged as the largest single party with 145 members in the Lok Sabha elections held in 2004.
• Hand is the symbol of Indian national congress.
Bharatiya Janata party:
• This party was founded in 1980. It largely consists of erast while Jana sangh members.
• It wants to build a strong and modern India by drawing inspiration from India’s ancient cultural values.
• It wants full territorial and political integration of Jammu and Kashmir with India.
• It wants a common civil code for all people irrespective of religion and a ban on religious conversions.
• It came to power in 1998 as the leader of National Democratic Alliance.
• It advocates freedom of press and autonomy for radio and Doordarshan.
• Lotus is the election symbol of Bhartiya Janata Party.
Bahujan Samajwadi party:
• This party was founded in 1984. Under the leadership of late Sri Kanshi Ram.
• It seeks to secure power for the Bahujan Samaj which includes the dalits, adivasis OBCs and other religious minorities.
• It seeks the welfare of the dalits and other oppressed classes.
• It draws inspirations from the teachings of Sahu Maharaj, Mahatma phule and Baba sahib Ambedkar.
• It has its main base in Uttar Pradesh.
• It also has substantial presence in the states of Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh, uttarakhand and Delhi.
• In the Lok Sabha elections held in 2004, it secured 19 seats.
• Elephant is the election symbol of BSP.
National Congress party:
• This patty was formed in 1999.
• The main policies are based on democracy, Gandhian secularism, equality, social justice and federalism.
• It wants that high offices in government be confined only to naturally born citizens of India. It is a major party in Maharashtra.
• It also has a significant presence in Assam, Meghalaya and Manipur.
• Its main leader is Sharad Pawar.
• Since 2004 it is a member of the United Progressive Alliance in the union government.
• Clock is its election symbol.
Communist party of India – Marxists (CPI – M):
• It was formed in 1964 as a result of split in Communist Party of India.
• It believes in Marxism and Leninism.
• It supports socialism, secularism and Democracy
• It is opposed to imperialism and communalism.
• It accepts democratic elections as it is a helpul means for securing its objective of socio economic justice in the country.
• It is opposed to the liberal policies that allow free flow of foreign capital and goods into India.
• In the 2004 elections to Lok Sabha it won 43 seats.
• Currently it is supporting the UPA government from outside.
• Hammer and star is its election symbol.
Communist party of India (CPI)
• It was founded in 1925.
• Like CPI – M it also believes in Marxism and Leninism.
• It supports secularism and democracy.
• It is opposed to the forces of imperialism and communalism.
• It accepts Parliamentary system as means of promoting the interests of the workers, peasants and weaker sections of society.
• It is in favour of right to work, social security and promotion of heavy industry.
• ‘sickle and ears of corn is its election symbol.

10th SA 2 Geography

Chapter 6
1. Explain the importance of manufacturing industries.
(i) Manufacturing industries help us in modernizing agriculture which is the backbone of our economy.
(ii) They provide people a number of jobs in secondary and tertiary sector. Thus they reduce heavy dependence on agricultural sector.
(iii) Export of manufactured goods expand trade and commerce and give foreign exchange to our country.
(iv) Prosperous countries of the world are those in which raw materials are transformed into a variety of finished goods. Hence India’s prosperity lies in its development in manufacturing industries as equally as possible.
(v) Regional disparities are also reduced by establishing industries in tribal and backward areas.

2. Name the factors which influence the industrial location. What criteria is considered the most important.
a) Factors of industrial location are availability of raw material, labour, power, market and transport.
b) Manufacturing industries start at the place where all the above factors are available or they can be arranged at lower cost.

3. Classify industries on various basis.
On the basis of raw material:
• Agro based industries: use agricultural products as raw material. Example --- cotton, jute, silk, woolen textile, rubber, sugar, edible oil etc..
• Mineral based industries: are those which use minerals as raw material. Example --- iron and steel, cement, aluminium smelting industries.
On the basis of industries:
• Basic industries --- finished products of these industries are used as raw materials of other industries. Example --- iron and steel, copper and aluminium.
• Consumer industries --- finished products of these industries are directly consumed. For example – sugar, paper, toothpaste, fan etc..
On the basis of capital investment:
• Small scale industries in which maximum investment allowed in 1 crore.
• Large scale industries in which maximum investment is more than 1crore.
On the basis of ownership:
• Public sector industries are owned and operated by government. For example --- BHEL, SAIL.
• Private sector industries are owned and operated by individuals or group of people for example --- Bajaj Reliance industries and TATA steel,
• Joint sector industries are jointly run by the government and individual. For example Oil India Limited (OIL).
• Cooperative sector industries are owned by the producers of raw material for example --- Amul in Gujarat, Sugar industry in Maharashtra, COIR industry in Kerala.
On the basis of bulk and weight of raw material and finished goods:
• Heavy industries use heavy and bulky raw materials and their finished products are also heavy and bulky.
• Light industries use light raw material and produces light goods. Example --- electrical industries.
4. “ The textile industry occupies unique position in the Indian economy” justify the statement.
• Textile industry contributes significantly about 14% to industrial production.
• It is a labour intensive industry employing directly 35 million person. In this respect it is the second largest after agriculture.
• It earns about 24.6% of foreign exchange through the export and accounts 4% of India’s GDP.
• It is the only industry in India which is self reliant.
5. Explain the problem faced by the cotton industry in India.
• Weaving, knitting and processing units cannot use much of the high quality yarn produced in the country.
• Government manufactures are forced to import fabrics.
• Scarcity of good quality cotton.
• Erratic power supply hampers production.
• Machinery needs to be upgraded in the weaving and processing sector.
• Low output of labour force.
• Stiff competition with synthetic fibre.
6. What are the factors for location of jute mills in West Bengal?
• Proximity of jute producing areas in hugli basin.
• Inexpensive water transport, support by a good network of railways and roads provide facility for the movement of raw material and finished goods.
• Availability of cheap labour force from west Bengal and neighbouring state.
• Port facility of Kolkatta for the export of jute goods.
• Availability of capital, banking and insurance facility
7. Name the countries which are the main importers of Indian jute product.
USA, Canada, Russia, United Arab Republic, United Kingdom and Australia.
8. “Jute industries in India has been facing many problem” Explain major methods adopted to solve them.
• Partition of the country brought the first problem by which majority of jute mills remained in India and 3/4th of the jute producing areas went to east Pakistan (Bangladesh)
• Tough challenges in the international market from low price synthetic material.
• Stiff competition with export trade with Bangladesh, Egypt, Thailand, Philippines.
• Decline in the demands of jute packing materials.
• Low productivity of mills using outdated industry.
9. Why is the development of iron and steel industry very important for India?
• It is the basic industry as all the other industry depend on it for their machinery.
• Steel is needed to manufacture a variety of engineering goods, construction material, defense, medical, telephonic, scientific equipment and a large number of consumers goods.
• Production and consumption of steel is regarded as the index of the country’s development.
• With 32.8 million tones of steel production India ranks among the steel producers of the world
10. Name the centres of 5 steel plants which are located in India.
(i) Durgapur and Burnpur ---- West Begal
(ii) Bokaro and Jamshedpur --- Jharkhand
(iii) Rourkela --- Orissa
(iv) Bhilai --- Chhattisgarh.
11. Which government agency markets the sttls of public sector steel plants?
Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL)
12. State 4 problems of iron and steel in India and steps taken to improve this industry.
Problems ----
• High cost and limited availability of coking coal.
• Low productivity of labour force and poor infrastructure.
• Irregular supply of power.
• We have to import good quality of steel from other countries.
Steps taken----
• With the efforts of private entrepreneurs liberalization and foreign direct investment (FDI) have given a boost to the industry.
• Allocation of resources for research and development to produce steel more competitively.

13. What is the importance of alluminium smelting industry?
• It is the second most important metal industy in India.
• Alluminium is light, resistant to corrosion, a good conductor of heat, malleable and ductile. It becomes strong when it is mixed with other metals.
• It is used to manufacture, aircrafts, utensils and wires.
• It is used as a substitute of steel, copper, zinc and lead in a number of industries.
• India has 8 alluminium plants in states of Orissa, west Bengal, Kerala, UP, Chattisgarh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.

14. How is chemical industries important for India?
• The industry is diversifying and growing very fast. It contributes about 3% of the GDP.
• India ranks 3rd in Asia and 12th in the world.
• It comprises both large and small manufacturing units which are widely distributed in the country.
• It is a basic industry because large number of industry like textile, leather, fertilizers, drugs, paints, soaps, paper, rubber, plastic, dye stiff and synthetic fibres.

15. Why is the development of cement industry very important.
• Cement is very essential for construction work such as building houses, factories and roads, airports, dams and for other commercial establishment.
• India produces a variety of good quality cement which is in great demand in the countries of east Asia, middle east, Africa and South – Asia.
• Consumption of cement per head is also considered an index of economic development.

16. What are the raw materials required for manufacturing cement?
The raw materials required to manufacture cement are limestone, silica, alumina and gypsum.

17. “ Electronic industry of India has revolutionized the economy of the country” Justify the statement.
• The electronic industry manufacture a wide rang e of products such as transistor, television, telephone, computers etc..
• It produces many other equipment for the post and telegram department, defence, railways, airways etc..
• The industry also make a valuable contribution to India’s space technology.
• The IT industry up to 31st march 2005 employed over 1 million people and this number is expected to increase in next 3 to 4 years.
• It is very encouraging to know that 80% of people employed in IT sector are women.
• The industry has been a foreign exchange due to its fast growing business processor outsourcing (BPO) sector.
• Software technology parks have been developed at 18 places in different states example ---- Mumbai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Pune, Chennai etc..

Chapter 5
1. Explain with examples the importance of minerals in our life.
• Almost everything we use from a tiny pin to a towering building are made from minerals.
• The railway lines and paving of roads, our implement and machinery are made from minerals.
• Cars, buses, trains, aero planes are manufactured from minerals and they run on power resources derived from the earth.
• The food that we eat contains minerals.
• Minerals are very important for the industrial development of our country.
2. What are minerals? How are they classified give examples?
A) Mineral is a naturally occurring substance in the earth crust that has a definite chemical composition and specific physical properties such as colour, hardness, luster and density. Example iron ore, diamond, graphite, copper, zinc etc..

B) Minerals can be classified into 3:
• Metallic minerals --- further classified into Ferrous, Non –ferrous and precious.
(i) Ferrous – contains iron for ex – iron ore, manganese, cobalt and nickel.
(ii) Non – Ferrous --- containing metals other than iron for example --- copper, tin, bauxite and lead.
(iii) Precious --- Gold, silver, platinum
• Non Metallic minerals --- salt, potash, mica, sulphur etc..
• Energy resources ---- mineral fuels and fossil fuels ---- coal, petroleum and natural gas.
3. Name 2 good qualities of iron ore and write the main characterists of each.
• Iron ore has 2 main qualities, they are magnetite and Haematite.
• Magnetite --- it is the best quality of iron ore with a very high content of iron up to 70%.
• It is mainly used in electrical industry due to its excellent magnetic qualities.
• Haematite --- It is the second great iron ore with iron content between 50% to 60%.
• It is the most important industrial iron as it is mainly used in steel making.
4. Name the 4 iron ore belt in India and write the names of exporting port of each belt.
(i) Orissa – Jharkhand --- Paradip (ORISSA)
(ii) Durg – Bastar (Chattisgarh) – Chandrapur (Maharashtra) --- Vishakapatnam (A.P)
(iii) Bellary – Chitradurga - Chikmaglur – Tumkur (Karnataka)
(iv) Maharashtra – Goa belt --- marmagao (Goa)
5. What are the uses of copper and name the states producing copper in India?
Uses of Copper:
• Copper is used to manufacture electrical cables, electronic and chemical industries and utensils.
• Major copper producing states are Madhya Pradesh, (Balaghaat mines produce 52% of India’s copper ), Jharkhand and Rajasthan.
6. Name the ore from which alluminium is obtained? Which is the largest producer of this ore and state 4 qualities of aluminium which make it and important metal for various uses?
• Aluminium is obtained from bauxite ore.
• Orissa is the largest producer of bauxite
• Qualities of aluminium are: strength, extreme lightness, good conductivity of electricity and great malleability.
7. Why is mica the most indispensible mineral used in electric and electronic industries?
• Use of mica in electronic industries are due to its excellent di – electric strength, low power loss, insulating properties and resistance to high voltage.
• Bihar, Jharkhand, Rajasthan and Andha pradesh are the leading producers of mica.
8. What are the main uses of limestone and write the major producing states.
A) (i) It is the basic raw material of cement industry
(ii) It is very essential for smelting iron ore in the blast furnace.
B) Main producers of lime stone are Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Tamilnadu.
9. Why is the conservation of minerals necessary?
• Industry and agriculture depends upon minerals and several products are manufactured from them.
• Mineral resources are finite and non – renewable some day their supply will get exhausted.
• The total volume of workable mineral deposits is very small i.e.. only 1% of the earth’s crust.
• The geological process of mineral formation is very slow but we are consuming mineral resources very rapidly.
• Continuous extraction of minerals lead to increased cost of mining.
• They are taken from greater depth.
10. What are the methods of conservation of minerals?
• Use mineral resources in a plan and sustainable manner.
• Improved technologies need to be evolved constantly for using low grade ores at low cost.
• Recycling of methods by using scrap material.
• Wastage in mining and procuring should be minimized by using efficient technologies.
• Checking the over export of mineral for the greed of earning foreign exchange.
• Constant efforts to discover new deposit of mineral product and substitution rare mineral by those found in abundance.
11. Name the types of coal found in India and write the characteristic of each.
Types of coal:
• Peat : Decaying plants in swamps produce peat.
(i) It has low carbon content i.e.. less than 50%.
(ii) It has high moisture and low heating capacity.
• Lignite: it is low grade brown colour coal and contains about 60% carbon.
(i) It is soft with high moisture contents.
(ii) Neyveli mines are the principle lignite reserves of the country.
• Bituminous --- it is the most popular coal in commercial use.
(i) It contains 60% to 80% carbon.
(ii) It has a special value for smelting iron in blast furnace
• Anthracite ---- it is the hard coal of best quality.
(i) It contains more than 80% carbon.
(ii) It is very less polluted.
12. What is the difference between Godwana coal deposits and tertiary coal deposits?
• Gondwana coal deposits are a little over 200 millions years in age while tertiary coal deposit are only about 55 million years old.
• Gondwana coal deposits are located in Damodar valley (West Bengal, Jharkhand). Its important coal fields are Raniganj, Jharia, Bokaro.
• Tertiary coal deposits are located in Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam and Nagaland.
13. What is the importance of petroleum?
• It is the next major energy resource in India after coal.
• It is widely used as the major power in transportation.
• It is used in agricultural machines and pumping sets.
• Lubricating oil obtained during petroleum refining is used in lubricating machinery.
• Petroleum refining act as a nodal industry in providing raw material for manufacture of various synthetic product such as textile, rubber, plastic etc.. fertilizers such as urea and numerous petro chemical such as face cream, dye and moth balls etc..
14. Electricity in India is generated by 3 different methods. Explain.
First method:
• In this method coal, petroleum or natural gas is burnt to release heat which is used to generate electricity.
• Electricity generated in this method is called thermal electricity. There are about 310 thermal power plants in India. For examples --- HarduaGanj, Barauni.
Second Method:
• In this method the force of the fast flowing or falling water is used to generate electricity.
• Electricity generated in this method is called hydro electricity.
• India has a number of multi purpose projects like Bhakra Nangal (Sutluj), Damodar Valley (Damodar) , Hirakud (Mahanadi)
Third method:
• In this method change in the atomic structure of certain atomic or nuclear minerals such as uranium and thorium is caused. The change in the atomic structure releases treamendous heat which is used to generate electricity.
• Electricity generated in this method is called nuclear or atomic energy.
• India has nuclear power plant such as Tarapur, Narora (U.P), Rawatbatta (Rajasthan), Kaiga (Karnataka), Kakarpara (Gujarat), Kalpakkam (Tamil Nadu).
15. “ Water power as a source of energy is more valuable than coal, petroleum, natural gas or atomic energy”. Explain and Justify.
• Water power is inexhaustible source of energy while the other four are exhaustible.
• Use of water power does not pollute the environment while the other pollute the environment in some way or other way.
• Expenditure in producing hydroelectricity is less than the expenditure involved in generating electricity by the other sources.
• The use of water power in certain industries such as aluminium, fertilizers, electroplating etc is more economical.
16. Explain the difference between conventional and non conventional source of energy.
• These have been used since long. Except water power the others are exhaustible.
• Distribution is uneven.
• Except water power they cause pollution.
• Construction of power plant of these sources require huge capital. Example – good fuel, coal, petroleum, natural gas and water power.
Non conventional :
• These have been in use only recently. Except nuclear energy the others are inexhaustible.
• Wide distribution except nuclear energy.
• Except nuclear energy the other do not pollute environment.
• Construction of power plant of these source except nuclear energy requires less capital. Example – sun, wing, tide, geothermal energy and nuclear energy.
17. Why is there a pressing need to use non conventional sources of energy in India?
• Increasing dependence on coal, petroleum and gas due to growing consumption of energy.
• Rising prices of coal petroleum and gas.
• Potential shortages of coal, petroleum and gas in future has raised uncertainties about the security of energy supply in future.
• Increasing use of fossil fuel also causes serious environmental problem.
• India is blessed with abundance of non- conventional resources like wind, tide etc..
18. Name the technology which directly convert sunlight into electricity.
19. Largest solar plant ---- located at Madhapur (Bhuj, Gujarat)
20. Largest wing farm --- Nagarcoil --- Madurai in Tamil Nadu.
21. Suggest some ways to use our energy resources judiciously.
• Using public transport system instead of personal vehicle.
• Switching of electricity when not in use.
• Using power saving devices.
• Checking the power equipment regularly.
• Using non conventional sources of technology.

Chapter 7
1. How have the various means of transport and communication converted the world into a large village? Explain it with examples?
• We have now living in an age of superfast means of transport and most modern means of communication like satellites and internets.
• Due to the above facilities the national and international markets have developed. The whole country has now become a single market.
• Through air transport we can reach the remotest parts of the world. Through satellites we can communicate with any part of the world with in no time.
• Modern means of transport and communication have drastically reduced distances.
• Physical distances between countries have now become meaningless.
• Now it seems that the modern means of transport and communication have converted the world into a large village.

2. “Various means of transport and communication are called the lifelines of modern economy,” Explain.
• For an efficient functioning of the nation effective transport and communications are necessary.
• Economic development of a region or country depends upon the network of transport and communication.
• They help in industrial development by assembling raw materials at factory sites and quick distribution of finished products.
• They help in knitting the far-flung region into a single national economy.
• They are important both in times of peace and war and also during natural disaster.
• They create feelings of unity and oneness among the people by reducing social inequality, political fragmentation and economic isolation of remote areas.

3. How is road transportation advantageous and disadvantageous?
• Roads are highly suitable for rural areas and remote areas.
• Roads provide door-door service, hence cost of loading and unloading is low.
• It can be constructed even on steep slopes in hilly and rugged areas.
• Suitable for short and medium distances.
• They connect farms, fields, factories and markets.
• They are helpful in transporting perishable goods.
• Cost of construction is much lesser than the railways and airways.
• Roads help in the defense of the country.
- Not suitable for long distances.
- Cannot transport huge and bulky goods.
- Journey by road is not very comfortable.
- Prone to various accidents.
- Generally associated with traffic jams.
- Most of the vehicles cause environmental pollution.
- Cost of construction of road transport is higher than that of railways.
- Cost of maintenance of the roads are high.
- Half of the roads are un-surfaced.
Q.4. Write the advantages and disadvantages of rail network.
- Suitable for long distances.
- Provide links among major cities of the country.
- Ideal for transporting non perishable, heavy and bulky goods.
- Helpful in developing country’s economy and rational integration.
- Provides door to door service through its container service of goods.
- Delay caused due to transshipment of goods and passengers from one garage to other.
- Stops at fixed posts only.
- Less suitable for transporting perishable goods.
- Construction on high altitudes are difficult.

Q5. Explain the four main problems faced by Indian railways.
Problems faced by Indian railways are:
- Many passengers travel without tickets causing loss of railway revenue;
- They pull chains unnecessarily which leads to late running of trains.
- People stop trains which cause heavy losses to the railways.
- Theft and damage of railway property are service problems.

Q6. What is pipeline transportation? State its three important networks in India.
a) It is a mode of transportation in which petroleum, gas and solids in slurry form are transported over long distances

b) Important pipeline networks in India are:
1. From oil fields in upper Assam to Kanpur Via Guwahati, Barauni and Allahabad.
2. From Salaya in Gujrat to Jalandhar in Punjab.
3. Gas pipeline from Hazira in Gujrat to Jagdishpur in UP and Vijay pur in Madhyapradesh. (HVJ)
4. Mumbai high to Mumbai.
5. Mimbai to Pune.

Q7. Explain the merits and demerits of Air transport by stating 2 points.
(i) It is the fastest mode of transport and hence it reduces the distance drastically and converted the world into one well knit unit.
(ii) It is free of all obstacles on land. Aero planes fly over mountains, deserts, forests, water bodies, etc. and take us to places not connected by roads, railways or waterways.
(iii) It is of special significance for the defense of a country in difficult terrain.
(iv) It plans a vital role in the event of natural and human made calamities like floods, famines, earthquakes, epidemics.
(v) It is highly suitable for sending valuable goods like life saving drugs, perishable commodities, mails etc.
1. It is the costliest mode of transport; hence it is beyond the reach of common people.
2. It is more adversely affected by bad weather conditions than any other means of transport.
3. It uses the air passage over any country only after its permission.
4. It creates sound pollution and during accidents chances of survival are very rare.
Q8. Classify the means of transport.
Means of transport are classified into
Land, water and air
Land transport is classified into - Road ways, Railways and Pipelines
Water transport is classified into - inland waterways and over seas waterways
Air transport is classified into - domestic airways and international air ways.
Q9. Describe super highways and their significance.
This major road development project links the metropolitan cities of Delhi – Mumbai – Chennai and Kolkata. These are six lane superways.
North south corridor links Srinagar ( Jammu and Kashmir) and Kanyakumari (Tamil Nadu) and East west corridor connects Silcher ( Assam )to Porbandhar (Gujarat)
The main objectives of the super Highways are to reduce distance between mega cities. These highways are implemented by the National Highway Authority of India (NHAI)
Q10. Describe different highways in India.
National Highways: These roads connect extreme parts of the country. They are laid and maintained by the central public works department (CPWD). Sher Shah Suri Marg is an important national highway.
State Highway: Roads that link the state capital. These roads are constructed and maintained by the state government.
District roads: These roads connect the district headquarters and important towns Maintained by zila parishad.
Other roads: These are the rural roads which link rural areas and villages. These roads got impetus under the Pradhan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojana.
Border roads: maintained by the Border Roads Organisation a Government of India. These roads connect the strategic points and in accessible areas of the country.
Q11. How are roads classified on the basis of materials.
Metalled and un metalled (use of cement, concrete, coal etc..)
Q12. What are the factors that affect the distribution of railway net work?
Physiographic, economic and administrative factors affect the distributions of railways. . Example – The Himalayan mountainous regions too are unfavourable for the construction of railway lines due to high relief. Sparse population and lack of economic opportunities too affect the distribution.
Q13. Name the National waterways of India ?
Water ways are the cheapest means of transport. They carry passengers, heavy and bulky goods.
• Ganga river between Allahabad and Haldia – N.W. No. 1 road
• The Brahmaputra river between Sadiya and Dhubri N.W. No. 2
• The west – coast canal in Kerala (kottapurma – Komman, Udyogamandal and Champakkara canals – (205 km) No. 3 are the national waterways.
Q14. What is the length of the coastline of India?
7,516.6 km. India has 12 major and 181 medium and minor ports
Q15. Why was the Kandla port created?
Kandla port was developed after the partition of India to ease the volume of trade on the mumbai port. Due to partition Karachi port was lost and Kandla port was created. Kandla is tidal port. It handles imports and exports.
Q16. Write a note on various ports of India.
Mumbai Port: Mumbai is the biggest port with a spacious natural and well sheltered harbour.
Jawaharlal Nehru port: was planned with a view to decongest the Mumbai port and serve as hub port for this region.
Marmagao port: (Goa) is the premier iron ore exporting port of the country. It accounts 50% of India’s iron ore export.
New Mangalore port: located in Karnataka exdprts iron ore concentrated from kudremukh mines
Kochi: is the extreme south western port, located at the entrance of a lagoon with a natural harbor.
Q17. What is the main purpose of dividing Indian railways into different zones?
The main purpose of dividing Indian railways is the better management and development of railways in different zones. There are 16 railway zones in India.
The railway zones are named after Primary directions like North zone – New Delhi, South zone – Chennai, East zone – kolkatta, west zone – Mumbai church gate.
Q18. Describe any four improvements made in the rail transport in India.
1. Construction of new tracks in new areas
2. Conversion of single track into double track, metre gauge lines into broad gauge.
3. Computer reservation for both onward and return journeys.
4. Replacement of steam engines by diesel and electric engines.
5. Fast trains like Rajdhani and Shatabdi Express trains.
6. Introduction of container service for delivery of goods at door steps.
Q19. What are the four types of air ? state the areas of operation.
• Indian airlines and Alliance Air: These provide domestic air services to neighbouring countries of south east Asia and the Middle East.
• Air India: provides international air services.
• Pawanhans : provides helicopter services to oil and Natural Gas Commission in its off shore operations and to inaccessible areas and difficult terrain.
• Private airlines or air taxis: Two private scheduled airlines operate on domestic network and 38 companies operate non-scheduled airlines operate non scheduled air taxis.
Q20 Write a note on
a)personal communication: sending and receiving messages at the individual or personal level. The personal means of communications are postal services telegraph, telex, e-mail etc..
b) mass communication: provides entertainment and creates awareness among people about various national programmes and policies. It includes radio, television, newspapers, magazines, books and films.
c)Postal service:
• it is the largest network. It handles parcels as well as personal and written communications.
• Cards and envelopes are considered first class mail and are airlifted between stations covering both land and air.
• The second class mail includes book packets, registered newspapers and periodicals.
• They are carried by surface mail, covering land and water transport.
• mail channels have been introduced recently.
• They are called Rajdhani Channel, metro channel, Green Channel, Business Channel, Bulk Mail Channel and Periodical channel.
c) Telecom network: It is one of the largest network in India. India has 37,565 telephone exchanges spread all over the country. More than two thirds of the villages in India are being covered with Subscriber Trunk Dialling (STD) telephone facility for 24 hours. The rate of STD is uniform all over India.
d) International trade: It is the economic barometer of a country. Needs, resources and development among nations create conditions for the foreign trade. India exchanges surplus goods with other countries. Foreign trade helps India to improve its productivity in the production of manufactured goods which earn more money. It promotes economic growth, raising income levels of people. It helps our country to import advanced technology of other countries to improve its own production. The prosperity of a country depends on the advancement of its international trade.
e) Balance of trade: it is the difference between the values of exports and imports of a country in a given year.
Favourable trade: When the value of exports exceeds that of imports.
Unfavourable trade: When the value of imports exceeds that of exports.
f) Tourism: Over 2.6 million foreign tourists visit India every year. More than 15 million people are directly engaged in the tourism industry. Tourism also promotes national integration, provides support to local handicrafts and cultural pursuits. It also helps in the development of international understanding about our culture and heritage,. Rajasthan, Goa, Jammu and Kashmir and temple towns of south India are important destinations of foreign tourists in India. This is an upcoming industry.