Wednesday, 22 February 2012

9th and 10th SA-2 sample papers

Social Science
Sample Question Paper
Summative Assessment II
Class X
Time allowed : 3 hours Maximum Marks : 80
General Instructions :
1. The question paper has 36 questions in all. All questions are compulsory.
2. Marks are indicated against each question.
3. Questions from serial number 1-16 are multiple choice Questions (MCQs) of 1 mark each.
4.Every MCQ is provided with four alternatives. Write the correct or the most appropriate alternative in your answer book.
5. Questions from serial number 17 to 29 are 3 marks questions. Answer of these questions should not exceed 80 words each
6. Questions from serial number 30 to 34 are 4 marks questions. Answer of these questions should not exceed 100 words each
7. Question number 35 is a map question of 2 marks from History and Question number 36 is. a map question of 3 marks from Geography.

1. Which one of the following is not true regarding the conservative regimes set up in 1815?
(a) They did not tolerate criticism regarding the legitimacy of autocratic governments.
(b) Most of them imposed censorship on press.
(c) They believed in the established traditional institutions like Monarchy Church etc.
(d) They favoured the idea of liberty and freedom.
Why did the ‘Go East Movement’ become popular in Vietnam during the first decade of 20th Century?
(a) Vietnamese students went to Japan to acquire education.
(b) They went to Japan to learn Japanese language.
(c) They went to get lucrative jobs.
(d) They looked for foreign arms and helped to drive away the French from Vietnam.
2. Which one of the following is not true regarding the ‘Balkan Problem’?
(a) The Balkan states were very jealous of each other.
(b) Each state wanted to gain more territory at the expense of others.
(c) The Balkans was also the scene of big power rivalry.
(d) The Balkans was not under the control of Ottoman Empire.
Which one of the following is not true regarding the regime of Ngo-Dinh-Diem in
South Vietnam?
(a) He built a repressive and authoritarian government.
(b) He laid the foundation of a democratic form of government.
(c) Any one who opposed him was jailed and killed.
(d) He permitted christianity but outlawed Buddhism.
3. Why did General Dyer open fire on the peaceful gathering at Jallianwala Bagh on 13th April, 1919?
(a) General Dyer wanted to enforce martial law very strictly in Amritsar.
(b) He wanted to create a feeling of terror and awe in the minds of satyagrahis.
(c) He wanted to demoralise the local congress leaders.
(d) He wanted to gain prominence in the eyes of British government.
4. Why did Gandhiji begin fast unto death when Dr. B.R. Ambedkar demanded separate electorate for Dalits?
(a) Separate electorates would create division in the society.
(b) Separate electorates would slow down the process of integration into society.
(c) With separate electorates, Dalits would gain respect in society.
(d) The condition of dalits would become better.
5. Which one of the following minerals belongs to the category of ferrous mineral?
(a) Gold (b) Copper
(c) Manganese (d) Bauxite
6. Which one of the following states is the largest producer of bauxite in India?
(a) Orissa (b) Gujarat
(c) Jharkhand (d) Maharashtra
7. Which one of the following factors plays the most dominant role in industrial location in a region?
(a) Availability of raw material
(b) Cheap and skilled labour
(c) Nearness of the market
(d) Least Cost.
8. Which one of the following groups of cities is connected by the National Highway No. 7.
(a) Delhi- Amritsar (b) Delhi- Kolkata
(c) Delhi- Mumbai (d) Varanasi- Kanyakumari
9. Identify the element which is NOT shared both by the movement in Nepal and the struggle in Bolivia.
(a) A political conflict that led to popular struggle.
(b) The struggle involved mass mobilisation
(c) It was about the foundations of the country’s politics.
(d) It involved critical role of political organisation.
10. Which one of the following political parties grew out of a movement?
(a) Communist Party of India. (b) Asom Gana Parishad.
(c) All India Congress (d) Bahujan Samaj Party
11. Which one of the following is NOT a function of political parties?
(a) Parties contest elections
(b) Parties do not shape public opinion
(c) Parties put forward different policies and programmes
(d) Parties play a decisive role in making laws for the country.
12. Which one of following statements does not reflect the right impact of ‘the Right to Information Act’?
(a) It supplements the existing laws that banned corruption
(b) It empowers the people to find out what is happening in the government.
(c) It enables the people to become law abiding good citizens.
(d) It acts as a watch dog of democracy.
13. Which among the following is an essential feature of barter system?
(a) A person holding money can easily exchange any commodity.
(b) It is based on double coincidence of wants.
(c) It is generally accepted as a medium of exchange of goods with money.
(d) It acts as a measure and store of value.
14. Which one of the following is a major reason that prevents the poor from getting loans from the banks?
(a) Lack of capital
(b) Not affordable due to high rate of interest
(c) Absence of collatoral security
(d) Absence of mediators
15. Which one of the following is a basic function of foreign trade?
(a) It flourishes trade in the domestic market
(b) Goods and services are produced for internal market
(c) It gives opportunity for the production to reach beyond the domestic market.
(d) Investment is done to expand the trade within the domestic markets.
16. Right to Information Act ensures its citizens to get all information of which one of the following? :
(a) About the Public Schools
(b) About the functions of government departments
(c) About all the technological institions
(d) About all private organisations and institutions 1
17. Explain any three reasons for the Greeks to win the Greek war of independence. OR 3x1=1
Explain any three features of scholars revolt in 1868 in Vietnam. 3x1=3
18. How did the Non-Cooperation Movement spread to the countryside? Explain giving three reasons. 3x1=3
19. What is the importance of energy resources? Give two examples each of conventional and non-conventional sources of energy. 1+1+1=3
20. Why is manufacturing sector considered the backbone of economic development of the country? Explain any three reasons with examples. 3x1=3
21. Explain any three factors which are responsible for localisation of jute textile mills mainly along the banks of the Hugli river. 3x1=3
22. How do the pressure groups and movements exert their influence on politics? Explain any three ways to do so. 3x1=3
23. Do democracies lead to a just distribution of goods and opportunities? Justify your answer by three suitable arguments. 3x1=3
24. “Most destructive feature of democracy is that its examination never gets over.” Support the statement with three appropriate arguments. 3x1=3
25. Suggest any three broad guidelines that can be kept in mind while devising ways and means for political reforms in India. 3x1=3
26. Describe any three factors which have enabled globalisation in India. 3x1=3
27. Explain any three features of MNCs. 3x1=1
28. Explain any three ways in which a consumer is exploited. 3x1=3
29. Explain any three consumer’s rights as user of goods and services. 3x1=3
30. Explain any four measures and practices introduced by revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people. 4x1=4
Who was the founder of Hoa Hao movement? Explain his contribution by giving any three points. 1+3=4
31. Explain any four features of Civil Disobedience movement of 1930. 4x1=4
32. How do physiographic and Economic factors influence the distribution pattern of railway network in our country? Explain with examples. 2+2=4
33. Why can’t modern democracies exist without political parties? Explain any four reasons. 4x1=4
34. Which are the two groups of various sources of credit in India?
Write any three features of each group. 1+3=3
35. Two features (A) and (B) are marked in the given outline political map of India. Identify these features with the help of the following information and write their correct names on the lines marked in the map:
(A) The place from where the movement of Indigo planters was started.
(B) The place where Indian National Congress Session 1927 was held. 2x1=2
Locate and label the following items with appropriate symbols on the same map.
(i) Kheda - The place of Peasant Satyagrah
(ii) Chauri Chaura - The centre of calling off the Non-Cooperation Movement. 2x1=2


Social Science
Marking Scheme
Class X
1. (d) or (d) 2. (d) or (b) 3. (b) 4. (b) 5. (c) 6. (a)
7. (d) 8. (d) 9. (c) 10. (b) 11. (b) 12. (c)
13. (b) 14. (c) 15. (c) 16. (b)
17. Reasons for winning the war :
(1) The growth of revolutionary nationalism in Europe sparked of a struggle for
independence amongst the Greeks.
(2) Nationalism in Greece got the support from other Greeks living in exile.
(3) West Europeans had sympathies for ancient Greek Culture.
(4) Poets & artists lauded Greece as the cradle of European civilisation & mobilized
public spirit in support of Greek struggle against a Muslim empire.
(5) The English poet, Lord Byron organised funds and went to fight in the war.
(6) The treaty of Constantinople of 1832 recognised Greece as an independent state.
(7) Any other relevant point.
(Any three points to be explained).
Scholars Revolt :
(1) Scholars Revolt was an early movement against French control and spread of

(2) This revolt was led by the officials at the imperial court angered by the spread of Catholicism and French power.
(3) They led a general uprising in Ngu An and Ha Tien provinces where thousands of
Catholics were killed.
(4) This movement served to inspire other patriots to rise against the French.
(Any three points to be explained). . Spread of Non Cooperation Movement:
(1) The peasants had to do begar and work at landlords’ farms without any payment.
(2) The peasants demanded reduction of land revenue and abolition of begar.
(3) The tenents had no security of tenure and were regularly evicted from land.
(4) In Awadh Baba Ramchandra led the movement.
(5) Any other relevant point.
(Any three points to be explained).
19. Importance of energy resources :
(1) It is required for all activities
(2) It is needed to cook, to provide light and heat.
(3) It is highly required for transport and communication
(4) Industries are closely related to energy
Conventional sources: Firewood, cattle dung, coal, petroleum, gas etc.
Non-Conventional Sources : Solar, Wind, Tidal, Geothermal, biogas and atomic energy.
20. (1) Manufacturing sector helps in modernising agriculture.
(2) It also reduces the heavy dependence of people on agriculture.
(3) It provides jobs to the large number of people.
(4) It reduces poverty from the country.
(6) Export of manufactured goods expands trade and commerce.
(7) Export brings foreign exchange.
(8) Transformation of raw material into a wide variety of furnished goods also provides
higher cost.
(Explanation of any three points with examples).
21. Factors responsible for location of Jute textiles.
(1) Proximity of the jute producing areas.
(2) Inexpensive water transport, supported by a good network of railways and roadways.
(3) Abundance of water for processing raw jute.
(4) Cheap labour is available from West-Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and Utter Pradesh.
(5) Kolkata port provides facilities for export of jute goods.
(6) Any other relevant point.
(Any three points to be explained).
22. Ways to influence politics
(1) They try to gain public support and sympathy for their goals.
(2) They often organise protest activities.
(3) They employ professional lobbyists or sponsor expensive advertisements.
(4) Some of the pressure groups are either formed by leaders of political parties or led by them.
(Any three points to be explained).
23. In actual life, we find that democracy does not lead to just distribution of goods and opportunities.
(1) Although individuals have political equality, we find growing economic inequalities.
(2) A small number of ultra-rich enjoy a highly disproportionate show of wealth and incomes.
(3) The income of those at the bottom of the society is declining so much so that it becomes difficult to meet their basic needs, such as food, clothing, housing etc.
(4) Although the poor constitute a large proportion of voters, yet democratically elected
governments do not provide them opportunities on equal footing.
(Any three points). Note : If a candidate writes ‘yes’ to the answer, he/she has to give appropriate arguments like the effects of fundamental Rights etc.
24. Suitable Arguments:
(1) As people get some benefits of democracy, they ask for more.
(2) People always come up with more expectations from the democratic set up.
(3) They also have complaints against democracy.
(4) More and more suggestions and complaints by the people is also a testimony to the
success of democracy.
(5) A public expression of dissatisfaction with democracy shows the success of the
democratic project.
(Any three points)
25. Broad Guidelines
(1) The changes in laws should be carefully devised.
(2) Any legal change must carefully look at what results it will have on politics.
(3) Democratic reforms are to be brought about principally through political practices.
(4) Any proposal for political reforms should think not only about what is good solution but also about who will implement it and how?
(Any three points)
26. Following factors have enabled globalisation in India :
(1) Improvement in Transportation - This has made much faster the delivery of goods
across long distances possible at lower costs.
(2) Improvement in Information and Technology : It has played a major role in spreading
out production of services across countries. Telecommunication facilities are used to
contact one another around the world to access information instantly and to
communicate from remote areas.
Computers have now entered almost every field of activity. Internet also allows us to
send instant electronic mail across the world at negligible costs.
(3) Liberalisation : Nations have removed the barriers to foreign trade and foreign
investment and thus promoted and facilitated globalisations.
4. Any other relevant point.
(Any three points)
27. (1) Features of MNCs : MNC s operate in more than one nation.
(2) They bring latest technology.
(3) MNCs have huge financial resources.
(4) The most common route for MNC investment is to buy up local companies and then to expand production.
(5) MNCs have tremendous power to determine price, quality, delivery and labour
conditions for these distant producers.
(6) Any other relevant point.
(Any three points to be highlighted)
28. Consumer is exploited when traders :
(1) Charge higher prices.
(2) Follow Unfair trade practices
(3) Weighs less than they should.
(4) Self Adulterated goods.
(5) Self Defective goods.
(6) Any other relevant point.
Any three points to be explained
29. Consumer has following rights.
(1) Right to Safety : The consumer has the right to be protected against the marketing of goods which have hazards to health, life and property.
(2) Right to be informed : Consumer has the right to know important facts and information about the goods and services they purchase.
(3) Right to choose : The consumer has the right to buy the product of his choice.
(4) Right to seek Redressal : The consumer has the right to seek redressal against
unfair trade practices or exploitation.
(5) Any other relevant point.
30. Measures & practices introduced by revolutionaries :
(1) The ideas of la-patrie & le-citoyen emphasised the nation of united community enjoying equal rights under the constitution.
(2) New French flag, the tricolour was chosen to replace the former royal standard
(3) The Estates General was elected by the body of active citizens and renamed the
National Assembly.
(4) New hymns were composed and martyrs commemorated.
(5) Internal customs and duties were abolished.
(6) Uniform system of weights and measures were adopted.
(7) Regional dialects were discouraged and French was written & spoken in Paris.
(8) Any other relevant points.

Hoa Hao movement : The founder of this movement was a man called Huynh Phu.
His Contribution : 1mark
1. He was always helpful to the poor people.
(2) His criticism against useless expenditure had a wide appeal.
(3) He also opposed the sale of girl brides.
(4) He opposed gambling and use of alcohol and opium.
(5) Any other relevant point.
(Any three points to be explained)
31. Features of Civil Disobedience movement
(1) The countrymen broke the salt law.
(2) They made salt and demonstrated in front of Govt. salt factories.
(3) Foreign clothes were boycotted.
(4) Liquor shops were picketed.
(5) Peasants refused to pay the land revenue.
(6) Village officials resigned their jobs.
(7) People violated forest laws.
(8) Any other relevant point.
(Any four points to be explained)
32. Physiographic Factors:
(1) Northern plains are vast level land. It provides the most favourable conditions to lay
down railway tracks.
(2) In the hilly terrains of the peninsular region railway tracks are laid through low hills
gaps, which increased the cost of construction of railway tracks.
(3) Himalayan mountainous regions are unfavourable for the construction of railway lines
due to high relief and sparse population.
(4) Desert region of western Rajasthan does not allow to develop railway lines in thar
(5) Swamps of Gujarat, forested tracks of Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Orissa and
Jharkhand are also not suited to construct railway lines.
Economic Factors:
(1) Railways are the principal mode of transportation for freight and passengers.
(2) Northern plains have high population density and rich agricultural resources.
(3) Plateau region of Chhota Nagpur is rich in mineral resources. As a result railway tracks are spread over the region.
(4) Industrial regions of the country directly linked with railway lines.
(5) Any other relevant point.
Any two points are to be explained 2x1=2

33. Reasons :
If there are no political parties in a democracy:
(1) Every candidate in the elections will be independent.
(2) No one will make promises to the people about any major policy change.
(3) The government may be formed, but its utility will remain be uncertain.
(4) Elected representatives will be accountable to their constituency only or locality only.
(5) No one will be accountable to the nation as a whole.
(6) Any other relewant point
(Any four points to be explained)
34. A . Formal sector Loans : Formal credit sector is known as organised sector. (ii) This sector provides loan at low rate of interest. (iii) This sector is supervised and controlled by Reserve Bank of India. (iv) It mainly includes : Commercial Banks :
Cooperative Society :
Informal Sector Loans :
(i) Informal credit sectors in India include credit given by unorganised sectors. (ii) These
sectors meet the credit needs of poor households. (iii) They charge high interest rate.
(iv) There is no organisation which supervises and controls the lending activities of
informal sector. (v) The main informal credit sources are : Local Money lenders, Traders
Employers, Relatives and Friends etc, Any other relevant point.
(Any three features)

Sample Question Paper
Summative Assessment- II
March - 2012
TIME : 3 Hrs Maximum Marks : 90
Instructions :
1. The question paper has 31 questions in all. All questions are compulsory.
2. Marks are indicated against each question.
3. Questions from serial number 1-10 are multiple choice questions (MCQ) of 1 mark each.
Every MCQ is provided with four alternatives. Write the correct alternative in your answer book.
4. Questions from serial number 11 to 22 are 3 marks questions. Answer of these questions should not exceed 80 words each.
5. Questions from serial number 23 to 30 are 5 marks questions. Answer of these questions should not exceed 120 words each.
6. Question number 31 is a map question of 4 marks from Geography only. After completion, attach the map inside your answer book.
1. Till the eighteenth century the shape of the cricket bat was in the shape of hockey stick. Choose the correct reason :
a) The ground was uneven.
b) The ball was bowled underarm along the ground.
c) There was no limit on the shape and the size of the bat.
d) It was easy to play in open ground.
Which combination was suggested by the Rabindra Nath Tagore for India's national dress?
a) Elements of Hindu and Muslim Dress.
b) Elements of Hindu and Parsi Dress.
c) Elements of Muslim and European Dress.
d) Elements of European and Hindu Dress.
2. Why is cricket match different from other sports? Choose the correct answer.
a) The match can go on for five days and still end in a draw.
b) The playing time is an hour and half.
c) The dimension of the playing area is specified.
d) The game gets completed in nine innings.
The red cap introduced by Jacobin Club symbolized :
a) Liberty
b) Equality
c) Broken Chain
d) Fraternity
3. Which one of the following types of forests is found in the Ganga-Bramputra Delta?
a) Thorny forest
b) Montane forest
c) Mangrove forest
d) Tropical Rain forest
4. Which one of the following provides an ideal habitat for the animal 'Yak'?
a) Sunderbans
b) Swampy and marshy lands of Assam
c) Rann of Kutch
d) Freezing high altitudes of Ladakh
5. Which of the following statements is against the democratic process of elections?
a) Parties and candidates should be free to contest elections.
b) Elections must be held regularly immediately after the term is over.
c) The right to vote should be given to the selected people only.
d) Elections should be conducted in a free and fair manner.
6. Which one of the following is a violation of the right to life or personal liberty?
a) The arrested person was informed about the reason of his arrest.
b) He was produced before the court within 24 hours of his arrest.
c) He was not allowed to consult his lawyer.
d) He was shown the warrant before arrest.
7. Which one of the following rights is available to the citizens of India and not to the citizens of Saudi Arabia?
a) The country is ruled by a hereditary king.
b) Citizens cannot form political parties.
c) Women are subjected to many public restrictions.
d) Citizens enjoy the freedom of religion.
8. Which one of the following is not considered as a social indicator of poverty?
a) Illiteracy level.
b) Lack of access of health care.
c) Inadequate safe drinking water.
d) Ample job opportunities.
9. Which one of the following does not ensure food security to the people?
a) Enough food is available for all the persons.
b) All persons have the capacity to buy food.
c) Extremely inadequate purchasing power.
d) There is no barrier on access to food.
10. Which Institution was set up by the Maharashtra Academy of Development Science (ADS) to facilitate a network of NGOs in different regions?
a) Gramin Bank
b) Grain Bank
c) Commercial Bank
d) Food Corporation of India
11. What is shifting cultivation? Why did the European foresters discourage the practice of shifting cultivation? 1+2=3
How did the Pastoralists cope with the changes in the modern world? 3x1=3
Explain the impact of introduction of machines in agriculture on poor farmers.
12. State any three important changes introduced in the game of cricket during the 19th century? 3x1=3
What was the main objective of Sumptuary laws? Mention any two restrictions
imposed under these laws.
13. How is the climate of India governed by the atmospheric conditions? Explain with three suitable examples. 3x1=3
14. Describe any three features of advancing monsoon season. 3x1=3
15. In which region are the tropical thorny forests and shrubs found in India? Mention any four characterstics of such type of vegetation. 1+2=3
16. Explain three main processes of change of population in India. 3x1=3
17. How does the Election Commission of India regulate campaigns of political parties and candidates to ensure fair and equal chances to compete? 3x1=3
18. What are 'Reserved Constituencies'? Why was the system of reserved constituencies introduced in India? 1+2=3
19. Explain any three powers of the Prime Minister of India as Head of the State.
20. Explain with examples how the poverty line is estimated in India? 1½+1½=3
21. Explain any three causes for the widespread poverty in India. 3x1=3
22. Describe the three dimensions of food security. 3x1=3
23. Explain any five ideas of Dietech Brandis for management of forests in India during British period. 5x1=5
Why are Maasais of Africa continuously losing their grazing grounds? Explain any five reasons.
How did the Enclosure Movement benefit Britain. Explain any fine benefits. 5x1=5
24. Explain any five reasons for increase in deforestation under colonial rule.
What was the impact of the colonial policies on the life of the pastoralists. Explain any five. 5x1=5
Why were the peasants not willing to grow opium in their fields? 5x1=5
25. "The Battle of Waterloo was won on the playing field of Eton". Justify the statement with any five suitable arguments. 5x1=5
"The introduction of western style clothing in the 19th centuary in India met with
severe reactions in different ways". Support the statement with suitable arguments. 5
26. Describe any five provisions made in the National Population Policy of 2000.
27. Name the two houses of Parliament in India. Which of the two houses in more
powerful? Justify your answer with any three suitable arguments. 1+1+3=5
28. "Rights are necessary for the very sustenance of a democracy". Give any five
arguments to support the statement. 5x1=5
29. Explain five important anti-poverty measures undertaken by the Government of
India. 5x1=5
30. What is buffer stock? Why is the buffer stock created by the government?
31.a)Two features A and B are shown in the political outline map of India. Identify these features with the help of following information and write their correct names on the line marked on the map. 2x1=2
A- Type of forest
B- The state having lowest sex-ratio
b) On the same political outline map of India locate and label the following items with appropriate symbols:
(i) Thiruvananthapuram - A weather station
(ii) Corbett National Park 2x1=2

Marking Scheme
Summative Assessment- II
March - 2012
TIME : 3 Hrs MM : 80 Marks
1 ______________________ (b) or (a) 1
2 ______________________ (a) or (a) 1
3 ______________________ (c) 1
4 ______________________ (d) 1
5 ______________________ (c) 1
6 ______________________ (c) 1
7 ______________________ (d) 1
8 ______________________ (d) 1
9 ______________________ (c) 1
10 _____________________ (b) 1
11 _____________________ (b) 1
12 _____________________ (c) 1
13 _____________________ (c) 1
14 _____________________ (b) 1
15 _____________________ (c) 1
16 _____________________ (d) 1
11. (i) In shifting cultivation, parts of the forest are cut and burnt in rotation. Seeds ares own in the ashes. Such plots are cultivated for a couple of years and then left follow to regain fetility.

ii) Europeans discouraged practice of shifting cultivation:
1. Considered the practice harmful for the forests.
2. Lands used for shifting cultivation could not be used to grow trees for railway
3. Danger of the flames spreading and burning valuable timber.
4. Difficulty in the calculation of taxes.
Any other relevant point
Any two points
Pastoralists coped with the changes by the following ways.
1. Reduced the number of cattle.
2. Moved to new pasture lands.
3. Became agriculturalist.
4. Became traders.
Any other relevant point
Any three points
Impact of introduction of machine in agriculture on poor farmers-
1. It brought misery to poor farmers.
2. They came under debt.
3. They had to leave their farms.
4. Look for alternate jobs.
5. Difficulty in finding jobs.
Any other relevant point.
Any three points.
12. Changes in the game of cricket-
1. The exact circumference of the ball was specified.
2. Protective equipment like pads & gloves became available.
3. Boundaries were introduced where previously all shots had to be run.
4. Over arm bowling became legal.
Any other relevant point.
Any three points

Objective of Sumptuary laws was to control the behaviour of those considered social inferiors.

1. Preventing them from wearing certain clothes.
2. Consuming certain foods & beverages.
3. Hunting game in certain areas.
Any other relevant point.
Any two points to be mentioned 2
13. The climate of India is governed by the following atmospheric conditions.
a) Pressure and surface winds.
b) Upper air circulation.
c) Western cyclonic disturbances and tropical cyclones.
(a) Development of low and high pressure during different seasons and the consequent development and pattern of wind movements.
(b) Development and the position of Jet stream during different seasons.
(c) Inflow of western disturbances during winters and the development of tropical cyclones over the seas. Explanation of each point. 3x1=3
14. Features of Advancing Monsoon:
(i) June to September is the period of advancing monsoon.
(ii) Development of monsoon low pressure trough.
(iii) Formation of south west monsoon winds.
(iv) Distribution of rainfull across the country.
(v) Breaks in monsoon.
(vi) Known for uncertainties.
Any other relevant feature
Any three points to be explained
(ix) The Monsoon is known for its uncertainties. The alternation of dry and wet spells vary in intensity, frequency and duration. It causes heavy floods in one part and droughts in the other.
(x) It is often irregular in its arrival and its retreat.
Any three features.
15. Thorn forests and scrubs are found in the north western part of India including semi-arid areas of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh and Haryana.
Characteristics :
(i) Found in regions with less than 70cm of rainfall
(ii) Trees are scattered and have long roots penetrating deep into soil to get moisture.
(iii) Stems are succulent to conserve water.
(iv) Leaves are thick and small to minimise evaporation.
16. Any two points:
In India
(i) Birth Rate is the number of live births per thousand persons in a year. It is a major component of growth of population. In India birth rates have always been higher than death rates.
(ii) Death Rate is the number of deaths per thousand persons in a year. Rapid decline in death rate is the main cause of rapid growth in population rapidly. Since 1981 birth rate has also started declining resulting in a gradual decline in the rate of population growth.
(iii) Migration is the movement of people across regions and territories. Migration can be internal or international. Internal migration does not change the size of the population within the nation. Migration plays a very significant role in changing the composition and distribution of population.3x1=3
17. According to our election commission laws no party or candidate can:
i) Bribe or threaten voters
ii) Appeal to voters in the name of caste or religion
iii) Use government resources for election campaign ;
iv) Spend not more than 25 lakhs in a constituency for Lok Sabha election or 10 lakhs in a constituency in an assembly election. 3x1=3

18. Reserved Constituencies:
Some constituencies are reserved for people who belong to the Scheduled Castes (SC) and Scheduled Tribes (ST). In these constituencies, only someone who belongs to these categories can contest election.
Arguments for introduction of Reserved Contituencies.
(i) The Constitution makers were worried that in an open electoral competition, certain weaker sections may not stand a good chance to get elected to Lok Sabha and the State Legislative Assemblies.
(ii) They may not have the required resources, education and contacts to contest and win elections against others.
(iii) If the reservation is not done, our Parliament and Assemblies would be deprived of the voice of a significant section of our population.
19. Powers of the Prime Minister as Head of the State.The Prime minister:
(i) chairs cabinet meetings.
(ii) coordinates the work of different departments.
(iii) exercises general supervision of different ministries.
(iv) distributes and redistributes work to the ministers.
(v) has the power to dismiss ministers.
(vi) his/her decisions are final in case of disagreement between the departments.
Any other relevant point
Any three points to be explained
20. The poverty line is estimated in India.
The common method used to estimate poverty line in India is based on income or consumption method.
Income Method - For the year 2000, the poverty line for a person was fixed at Rs 328 per month for the rural areas and Rs. 454 for the urban areas.
Consumption Method - The accepted average calorie requirement in India is 2400 calories per person per day in rural areas and 2100 calories per person per day in urban areas
21. Causes for the widespread poverty in India:
i) Low level of economic development under colonial rule.
ii) Less job opportunities
iii) Low growth rate of income.
iv) High growth rate of population.
v) Low per capital income
Any other relevant point
Any three points to be explained
22. Food security has following dimensions:-
1. Availability of food means food production within the country, food imports and the
previous years stock stored in government granaries.
2. Accessibility means food is within reach of every person
3. Affordability implies that an individual has enough money to buy sufficient, safe and
nutritious food to meet one's dietary needs.
Any other relevant point
Any three points
23. Five Ideas of Dietrich Brandis for Management of forest in India
i) Training people in the science of conservation
ii) Framing rules about the use of forest resources
iii) Restriction on felling of trees
iv) Restriction on grazing
v) Preservation of forest for timber production
Anyother relevant point.
Any five points to be explained.
The main reasons for the continuous loss of grazing lands of Maasais:
(i) Europeon imperial powers scrambled for territorial possessions in Africa, slicing up the region into different colonies.
(ii) Maasai land was divided into British Kenya and German Tanganyika.
(iii) The best grazing lands were gradually taken over by white settlements andMaasais were pushed into a small area.
(iv) The Maasais lost about 60 percent of their pre-coloical lands.
(v) They were confined to an arid zone with uncertain rainfall and poor pastures.
(vi) Large areas of grazing land were turned into game reserves.
Any other relevant point.
Any five points to be explained.
(i) Grain production grew as quickly as population.
(ii) Landlords sliced up pasture lands, carved up open fields, cut up forest commons, took over marshes, and turned larger areas into agricultural fields.
(iii) Enclosures were seen as necessity to make long term investments on land.
(iv) Planned crop rotation to improve their soil
(v) It also allowed the rich landowners to expand the land under their control and
produce more for the markets.
(vi) Any other relevant point.
Any five benefits to be explained.
24. Five reasons for increase in deforerstation under the colonial rule:
i) Increase in demand for food.
ii) Forests were considered unproductive by the colonial rulers.
iii) Increase in need for raw materials for industrial production.
iv) Spread of railways
v) Development of plantation
Any other relevant point
Any five points to be explained
Impact of the colonial policies on the life of Pastoralists148
i) Loss of grazing land.
ii) Loss of cattle.
iii) Decline in the quality pastures.
iv) Shortage of forage for animals.
v) Death of cattle or
Any other relevant point
Any five points to be explained
The Peasants were not willing to grow opium in their fields.
i) The crop had to be grown on their best lands.
ii) Many cultivators owned no land.
iii) The rents charged on good lands near village was very high.
iv) Growing of opium was a difficult process.
v) The price given by government was low.
Any other relevant point
Any five points to be explained
25. (i) Britain's military success was based on the values taught to school boys in its public schools.
(ii) Eton was the most famous of these schools.
(iii) The English boarding school was the institution that trained English boys for
careers in the military, the civil service & the church.
(iv) Men like Thomas Arnold, head master of the famous Rugby School and founder of the modern public school system, saw team support like cricket and rugby not just as outdoor play, but as an organised way of teaching English boys the discipline.
(v) It taught the English boys, the importance of codes of honour and the leadership qualities that helped then build and run the British empire.
Any other relevant point.
Many Indians reacted differently by the introduction of western style clothing.
(i) The wealthy Parsis of western India were among the first to adapt western style of
clothing. Baggy trousers and the Phenta (or hat) were added to long colourless coats with boots and a walking stick to look like a gentleman.
(ii) To some, western clothes were a sign of modernity and progress.
(ii) There were others who were convinced that western culture would lead to a loss of traditional cultural identity.
(iv) The use of western style clothes was taken as a sign of the world turning upside
(v) Some men resolved this dilemma by wearing western clothes without giving up
their Indian ones.
Anyother relevant point.
26. Provisions made in the National Population Policy 2000
i) Imparting compulsory school education upto 14 years of age.
ii) Reducing infant mortality rate to below 30 per 1000 live birth.
iii) Achieving universal immunisation of children against all vaccine preventable diseases.
iv) Raising marriage age for girls.
v) Making family welfare a people centred programme.
Any other relevant point.
27. Two Houses of Parliament in India:
i) Lok Sabha & Rajya Sabha
ii) Lok Sabha is more powerful.
iii) a. If both the houses disagree on an ordinary bill, the will of Lok Sabha will prevail in the joint session due to its larger number.
b. Lok Sabha enjoys more powers in money matter. For example a money bill can only be introduced in Lok Sabha.
c. Lok Sabha controls the Council of Ministers.
d. Only Lok Sabha can pass the no confidence motion against the Council of Ministers.
Any other relevant point
28. Rights are necessary for the sustenance of democracy because:
(i) Every citizen must have the right to vote and the right to be elected.
(ii) Every citizen should have the right to express his/her opinion.
(iii) Citizens have the right to form political parties.
(iv) Right to project minorities from the oppression of majority.
(v) Right to act as a check on misuse of government power.
Any other relevant point
Any five arguments to be given
29. Anti-Poverty Measures taken by teh Government of India.
1. National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) 2005
The Act provides 100 days assured employment every year to every rural household
in 200 districts.
2. National Food for Work Programme. (NFWP) 2004 was launched in 150 most backward districts
of the country. It is open to all rural poor who are in need of wage employment.
3. Prime Minister Rozgar Yogana (PMRY) 1993.
The aim is to create self employment opportunities for educated youth in rural areas and small towns.
4. Rural Empoyment Generation Programme (REGP) 1995
The aim to is to create self employment opportunities in rural areas.
5. Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yogana (SGSY) 1999.
It aims at bringing the poor families above poverty line by organizing them into self help groups through bank credit and government subsidy.
Any other relevant point
30. Buffer stock is the stock of foodgrains and rice procured by the government through Food Corporation
of India (FCI).
Buffer stock is created by the government :
(i) To distribute foodgrains in the deficit areas.
(ii) To use among the poorer strata of society at a lower price.
(iii) To resolve the problem of shortage of food during adverse weather conditions or during the periods of calamity.
(iv) Any other point to maintain food security
Any other relevant point
32. Reserved Constituencies:
Some constituencies are reserved for people who belong to the Scheduled Castes (SC) and Scheduled Tribes (ST). In these constituencies, only some one who belongs to these categories can contest for election.
Arguements for justification of the Concept
(i) The Constitution makers were worried that in an open electoral competition, certain weaker sections may not stand a good chance to get elected to Lok Sabha and the State Legislative Assemblies.
(ii) They may not have the required resources, education and contacts to contest and win elections against others.
(iii) If the reservation is not done, our Parliament and Assemblies would be deprived of the voice of a significant Section of our population.
33. (i) Parliaments all over the world make laws, change existing laws or abolish existing laws and replace them by new ones.
(ii) It exercises control over those who run the government.
(iii) Parliament controls all the money that government has.
(iv) Parliament is the highest forum of discussion and debate on public issues and national policies.
(v) Parliament can seek information on any matter.

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