Saturday, 27 August 2011

9th S A - 1 geography notes

Standard IX                                                     Geography
CHAPTER 1
INDIA SIZE AND LOCATION

1. Where is India located?
    India is vast country. It entirely lies in the Northern and Eastern Hemisphere.
·         It extends between 8°4’N to 37° 6’N latitudes and 68°7’E to 97°25’E longitudes.
·         India lies between the eastern and western parts of Asia.
·         The Tropic of cancer - 23° 30’ N equally divides the country into 2 parts.

2.Describe the locational importance of India.      (or)      Describe the significance of the strategic position of India.          (or)   The  central location of India at the head of the Indian Ocean is considered of great significance. Why?
  • India is located in a favourable position in the central part of Asia surrounded by ocean and seas.
  • The location favours trade with west and eastern part of the world.
  • Since the past India had a strong geographical and historical links with her neighbours due to her position. 
  • India is directly connected with Suez canal (1869).

3. Which latitude divides India into two equal parts?
  • The Tropic of Cancer (23ยบ 30 ‘ N) divides India into two equal parts.

4. Name the two island groups of India.
  • To the west of India in the Arabian sea lies the Lakshwadeep island and to the west in the Bay of Bengal  lies the Andaman and Nicobar island.

5. What is the size of India in contrast with the world.
  • India has an  area of 3. 28 million square km with 2. 4 % of land of the world.
  • India is the seventh largest country of the world.
  • It has a land boundary of 15,200 km  with 7,516.6 km coastal boundary.

 6. What are the natural boundaries of India? Name them.
 India is bounded by Young fold mountains – The Himalayas in the north.
  • Arabian sea forms its western boundary and Bay of Bengal lies in the east.
  • Indian ocean is the southern boundary.
  • Palk strait separates India from Srilanka.

7. Describe the land of India in the south of 22°N.
  • The land tapers toward the east below 22°N.

8. Name the countries larger than India.
Russia, Canada, USA, China, Brazil, Australia.
9. The sun rises two hours earlier in Arunachal Pradesh as compared to Gujarat in the west but the watches show the same time. How does this happen.
  • There is a time lag of two hours between the eastern  and the western corner of India.
  • In order to cover this time difference we follow the Indian Standard Meridian (IST) 82°30’ E all over India.
  • It passes through Mirzapur at Allahabad.
  • As we follow the IST,  our watches show the same time. 
10. Why 82°30’E has been selected as the standard Meridian of India?
            Because this is the central meridian of India that divides our country into 2 equal parts vertically.

11. Why is the difference between the duration of the day and night hardly felt at Kanya Kumari?
            Duration is hardly felt as Kanya Kumari is located in the southern tip of India where sun rises and sets in the same palace.

12. Justify the naming of Indian ocean after India.
  • No other country has a long coastline along the Indian ocean except India.
  • It is India’s eminent position in the Indian ocean which justifies the naming of an ocean after it.

13. ‘Distance from Europe to India has been reduced by 7,000 km’. How?
  • Since the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, India’s distance from Europe to India has been reduced by 7,000 km.

14. Throw light on India’s age old contacts with the world through land routes and sea routes.
                                                (or)
      How did the Trans Asian land routes and Maritime contacts contributed in exchanging ideas and commodities in ancient times?
  • The old routes have contributed in the exchange of ideas and commodities since ancient times.
  • Ideas of Upanishads, Ramayana, Panchatantra. Decimal system and the  Indian numerals could reach the world.
  • Spices, muslin and other merchandise were taken from India.
  • On the other hand the influence of Greek sculpture and architectural styles of dome and minarets are found in India.

15. Name the countries which share land boundaries with India.
  • India shares its land boundaries with  Pakistan and Afghanistan in the north west, China, Tibet, Nepal and Bhutan in the north and Myanmar and Bangladesh in the east.

16. Who are the southern neighbours of India?
  • Srilanka and Maldives.

17. Name the southern most tip of India.
  • The southern most tip of India on the mainland is Kanya Kumari.
  • The southern most point of Indian Union – Indira Point got submerged under the sea water in 2004 during the Tsunami.

18. Name the water body that separates India from Srilanka.
            Palk Strait, a narrow water body separates India from Srilanka.


Std: 9th                         Geography - CHAPTER-2
                                Physical Features Of India

Q1. What are the major land forms of the earth?
Ans.  The major land forms or the physical features of the earth are  1. plains 2.Plateaus  and Mountains.
Q2. What are the causes for the formation of different land masses?
Ans. 1.   Landforms are formed during different Geological Periods.
2.      A number of processes such as weathering , erosion, deposition have created and
Modified the relief.
        3.  The movements of the plates also causes the formation of land forms.
            (This is called Plate Tectonic theory).               
Q3.How many plates are there on the earth?
Ans. The earth’s crust is made of 7 major and minor plates.
Q4.How do plates move?
Ans. The movements of the plates are caused due to the stresses or pressure with in the
         Plates leading to folding, faulting and volcanic activity.
Q5.Classify the plate movements with diagrams?
Ans. Plate movements are classified into 3 types: ((refer pictures from the text book)
1. Convergent boundary: Some plates move towards each other. These often collide and  
crumble causing earthquakes, sometimes they slide under each other.

2. Divergent boundary: Here plates move away from each other. They are not dangerous.

3.Transform boundary: Sometimes the plates move horizontal to each other.

These movements have evolved the format of present landforms.

Q6.Write a short note on Gondwanaland ?
Ans: Gondwanaland was the southern part of the ancient Super Continent called Pangea with Angara land in the northern part.
It is the oldest land mass including India, Australia, South Africa and South America. Conventional currents split the land into pieces this lead to the drifting of Indo-Australian plate separated from Gondwanaland towards north.
Q7.How are Himalayas formed?
Ans: The high peaks, deep valleys and fast flowing rivers prove that the Himalayas are the young origin. The collision of  Indian plate with  Eurasian plate has resulted in the formation of the Great mountains. Due to the movement of plates the  Tethys sea was filled with sedimentary rocks and the land got folded resulting in the formation of the Himalayas. Himalayas are unstable zone.
Q8.Describe the formation of Ganga  Brahmaputra Basin. or Northern plains  and Peninsular Plateau?
Ans: Ganga-Brahmaputra Basin: There aroused a depression between the Himalayas and the peninsular plateau in the geological ages. Gradually this depression was filled with deposition of sediments by the rivers (Ganga, Indus and Brahmaputra). Thus the Great Indus-Ganga-Brahmaputra plains were formed.  
Peninsular Plateau: This plateau is the oldest landmass. It is a stable zone. This land is composed of igneous and metamorphic  rocks with gently rising  hills and wide valleys. These lands are said to be formed due to volcanic lava once existed in the northern part of India.
Q9. Name the Major Physiographic Division of India?
Ans:The Major Physiographic Divisions of India are
  1. The Himalayan Mountains
  2. The Northern Plains
  3. The Peninsular Plateau
  4. The Indian Desert
  5. The Coastal Plains and
  6. The Island groups of India.
Q10. Describe the Himalayan Mountains?
Ans:The Himalayan Mountains are as follows:
  1. These are young and fold mountains in the North of India from Indus in the West to Brahmaputra in the east..
  2. They are formed like an arc (distance 2,400 km)width- 400 to 150km from Jammu Kashmir to Arunachal Pradesh respectively
  3. Altitude is greater in the eastern half than in the western half.
  4. The Himalayas consists of 3 parallel ranges or (i)Great Himalayas or Himadri (vertical division)(ii) Middle Himalayas or Himachal and (iii)Lesser Himalayas or Shiwliks.
Q11. Describe the 3 parallel divisions of Himalayas?
Ans(A)Himadri:- Consists of loftiest peaks with average height of 6000 meters. It is bounded by many rivers descending from it. Peaks found here are –Mt. Everest-(8848mts) Kanchenjunga, Nanga parbat, K2   etc
 (B)Hamachal : Lies below the Himadri composed of altered rocks – Altitude-3,700 and 4,500 mtrs width -50kms. Pirpanjal range forms the longest and the most important range. Dauladhar and Mahabharata are the other ranges found here.  Valleyss- Kashmir, Kullu, Kangra in H.pradesh.
(C ) Shiwaliks: are the Outer most range of Himalayas. Width of 10-50km and altitude varies from 900-1100 mtrs- composed of  consolidated sediments, gravel and alluvium.

Q12.What are Duns? Give Examples.
Ans: Duns are Longitudinal Valleys lie between the lesser Himalayas and Shiwaliks.
Eg:- Dehra Dun, Kotli Dun, and Patli Duns.

Q13.Describe the  Longitudinal division of the Himalayas?
Ans: The Longitudinal division  of the Himalayas are
  1. Punjab Himalayas: These range lie between Indus and Satluj. They are also called as Kashmir and Himachal Himalayas.
  2. Kumaon Himalayas: Lying between Satluj and Kali river is known as Kumaon Himalayas.
  3. Nepal Himalayas: lie between Kali and Tista rivers.
  4. Assam Himalayas: lie between Tista  and Dihang rivers.
  5. Purvachal: Beyond  Dihang gorge lies the purvachal or the eastern Himalayas made of sand stones – covered  with dense forests. It comprises hills like the Pataki hills, the Naga hills, Mani pur hills and Mizo hills.
Q14. Describe the Northern Plains? How are they divided?
                                                   (or)
        How are the Northern plains divided on the basis of relief?
Ans :The Northern Plain  is formed of alluvial soils and is about 2400 km long(area- 7 lakh  sq .mt) and 240 -320 km broad.
2.It is the densely populated area with rich agriculture  background.
3.The rivers flowing in this region are involved in depositions. They flow gently in the lower course forming riverine islands. Example: Majula in brahmputra region is the largest reverine island.
Divisions of Northern Plains:
Northern Plains are split into three sections.
(A) Punjab Plains: a) Western part of northern plain is referred to as the Punjab Plains formed by Indus and its tributaries.
b) The Indus and its tributaries- the Jhelum the Chenb, the Ravi, the Beas and the satluj originated in the Himalaya and this reign is called as the Doabs  (do- two -  ab-river) (punj – five  ab- rivers)
(B)Ganga Plains:
1. Extends between Ganga and Teesta river
2. Spread over Haryana, Delhi, U.P, Bihar part of Jharkhand and West Bengal.
3. The plain are flat and have diverse relief features
The Northern plains can be divided into 4 parts in relief features.
(i)                  Bhabar: The rivers deposit a narrow belt of pebbles in about 8 to 16 km parallel to the Shiwaliks- streams disappear in this zone.
(ii)                Terai : To the south of this zone the streams re-emerge and create a wet, swampy and marshy region. It was a thickly forested region but now cleared for agriculture and to settle migrants from Pakistan. Dhudhwa national park is located here.
(iii)               Bhangar: Large part of northern part is formed of older alluvium . The soil contains kankars.
(iv)              Khadar: The younger deposits of the flood plains are called khadar. They are renewed almost every year and are ideal for agriculture.
(C) Brahmaputra Plains: To the east of Ganga Plain particularly in the Assam region lies the Bramaputra plains.
Q15. Describe the Peninsular Plateau?
Ans: 1.Composed of old crystalline, igneous and metamorphic rocks.         
         2. The Plateau has broad and shallow valleys.
         3. This plateau is divided into 2 divisions (i) The Central high lands (ii) The Deccan plateau 
A. The Central High lands:
1)      To the north of Narmada in the Malwa plateau lies in the Central Highlands. The Vindhya are bounded by the Central Highland on the south and the Aravalis on the north west.
2)      They are wider in the west but narrower in the east. In the west they are called as Bundelkhand and Baghelkhand. Further east lies the Chotanagpur Plateau.
B. The Deccan Plateau:
1)Triangular Landmass lies to the south of river Narmada.
2) To the north west of Deccan lies the Satpura range and in the north east lies the Mahadev, the Kaimur hills and Makal range.
3)This plateau gently slopes towards the east.
4)This plateau is also visible in eastern part of India and also called  as –Meghalaya,karbi Anglore  plateaus and north Chachar hills.  Deccan plateau is well known for black soil and is called as Deccan Trap.
Q16. Distinguished  between Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats.
  1. Western Ghats lie parallel to the               Eastern Ghats lie parallel to the Eastern
Western coast                                         coast.

       2.They are continuous mountain chains         They are dis- Continuous mountain chains                 
          and could be crossed only through
          passes.

      3.They are higher than the eastern ghats     They are lesser than the western ghats and
       their average height varies from 900          their average height  is 600mtrs.
       1600 mtrs.

     4. They cause Orographic rain by stopping  They fail to cause Orographic rainfall.  
         the rain bearing winds.    
                                               
     
5. The heighest peaks are Anaimudi t        The heighest peaks are Mahendragiri
       (2,695 mtrs ) and Dodabetta (2,637mtrs)       (1,501 mtrs) other hills are Shevroy and
         Respectively.                                               Javadi hills.
          
      6.Ooty and Kodaikanal are the famous hill   Pachaimalai, Kollimalai are the          
             stations of this region.                                      hills for Pilgrimage.
Q17.Distinguished between Western Coastal Plains  and Eastern Coastal Plains.?
Ans: Western Coast is sandwiched between                  Eastern Coast is sand witched
         Arabian sea and western ghats.                             between Bay of Bengal and Eastern
                                                                              Ghats.
1.It is a narrow Plain                                               1.          It is a wide plain.
2. It is divided into 3 parts                           2.         It is divided into 2 parts
(i)Konkan Coast (Mumbai- goa)                             (i)  Northern circar into North.
(ii) Kannara plain –central stretch                            (ii) Coromandal Coast in the South
(iii)Malabar Coast- south
3. Narmada, ,Tapi river flows through                     3. Mahandi, Godavari, Krishna etc.,
this plain and form estuaries                                     flow through this plain and form
                                                                              deltas.Chilka Lake is an importat               
                                                                              feature.
                                                                       
Q18. Write a short note about the Indian desert?
Ans:Indian desert lies to the western margin of Aravalli hills
  1. It is an undulated sandy plain with many sand duns.
  2. Receives below 150mm of rainfall per year.
  3. Has arid climate with less vegetation cover.
  4. Luni is the only large river in this region.
  5. Barchans are the crescent shaped dunes or longitudinal dunes more prominent near the Indo Pakistan boundary.
Q19.Write a short note on the island groups of India?
Ans: There are two group of islands.
  1. Lakshadweep: lie close to the Malabar coast of Kerala.This island is composed of small coral islands . Earlier known as Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindive came to be called as Lakshadweep in 1973. It covers an area of 32 sq.km. Kavarathi is the capital and administrative head. Pitti island has a bird sanctuary.
     Andaman and Nicobar Islands : are the elongated chains of islands in Bay of    
     Bengal. They are divided into 2 categories.
          (i) Andaman in the north and (ii) Nicobar in the south. They experience thick forest              
          covers with great diversity in flora and fauna.
Std: IX                         Geography
                 DRAINAGE
Introduction:
1. Key terms:
Drainage :River system of an area.
Drainage basin:An area drained by a single river system.
Water divide: Mountain or upland separates 2 drainage basins.
2. Which river has the largest drainage basin in India?       Ganga.

Drainage System in India.
3. How are the rivers classified?
Indian Rivers are classified into following types
a.  The Himalayan Rivers and the Peninsular rivers.
b. Perennial rivers (Which have water throughout the year) and the non- Perennial rivers (Seasonal water- only during rainy seasons)
4. How do rivers get water? Or what are the various sources of running water (river) ?
Source of rivers: i)Melting of Snow in the mountains  ii) Rainfall           iii) Lakes iv)Springs

 5.Describe the course  of the Rivers with a diagram.
A)Upper Course : Most of the rivers originate from mountains. They cut through mountains and descend down with great speed forming water falls, canyons, gorges etc...
The river is very active in erosional and transportational activities. Transport  huge loads of silt and sand. Features formed by the upper course: water falls, canyons, gorges, and rapids. Upper course of the rivers are also called as the youthful stage of the river.

B)Middle Course Features: The river descends down the mountain and starts flowing in the plains with moderate speed. They form features like flood plains, Oxbow lake (horse shoe) meanders. The river here is more engaged in  both transportation and deposition. This course  of the river is called the matured stage of the river.

C)Lower Course: The flow of the river becomes very slow because of the more deposition and the formation of distributaries. This stage of the river is also called as the old stage. Features formed by the lower course: Distributaries, deltas. The rivers are very slow and is engaged in depositional work.

(refer diagrams from the  text book)









6.Distinguish between Himalayan Rivers and Peninsular rivers
Points to remember  Himalayan rivers                             Peninsular rivers
Source of water            Originates from the mountains   Originate from the
                                    by the melting of snow              mountains by rainfall due          
                                                                                                to s.w monsoon rains
Place                            Originates from the mountains   Originates from the
                                    of Himalayas                                         mountains of western ghats.

Length                          Longer & deep rivers courses               Shorter and shallower
                                                                                                Courses.

Water flow                   These rivers are perennial                      Theses rivers are non -
                                    Rivers (through out the year)                 Perinnial rivers
                                                                                                (Seasonal Rivers)

Example of rivers          Ganga, Indus, Brahmaputra                   Mahanadi, Krishna,
                                                                                                Cauveri.

Some rivers original from central highland and flows into Arabian sea- eg: Naramada-Tapi-forms estuaries.

7. Define different drainage Patterns with suitable diagrams.
On the basis of  slopes of the land, rock structure and climatic conditions form some patterns
(refer diagrams from the text book)
1.Dendritic: Developed  where river channels follow  the slope of the terrain- the streams resembles like the branches of the tree.

2. Trellis Drainage: Rivers joining at right angles due to ridges.

3. Rectangular Drainage:Strong  rocky terrains,  rectangular pattern of drainage is formed.

4. Radial Pattern: Many rivers radiates from the same source into different directions.
8. Write short notes:
a) Indus River system
  • The Indus river rises near Mansarowar near Tibet.
  • Flows in the Ladhak region  of J.K forming a large gorge.
  • Tributaries- Zaskar, Nubra, Shyok and hunza.
  • The river flows through Baltistan, Gilgit and emerges from mountains at Attock.
  • The Satluj, the Beas, Ravi, Chenab and Jehlum join together to enter the Indus near Mithankot in Pakistan.
  • The total length of Indus is 2900 km.
  • The Indus flows southwards and enter into Arabian Sea.
  • Indus Water Treaty  was signed in 1960. According to this India can use 20% of water. This water is used for irrigation in Punjab, Haryana and S.W.part of Rajasthan.
b)Ganga River System
  • The head water of Ganga is called Bhagirathi which is fed by Gangotri glacier.
  • Bhagirathi is joined by Alaknanda at Devprayag in Uttarakhand.
  • At Haridwar the Ganga descends down the mountains and flows in plains.
  • Tributaries: Yamuna rises from yamunotri glacier and joins Ganga from its right bank. Other tributaries are Ghagra, Gandak, kosi, Son, Betwa, Chambal, Ken etc..
  • The Ganga flows eastwards till Farakka in West Bengal.
  • The river bifurcates into distributaries in Bangladesh. Bhagirathi-Hoogli is a distributary of Ganga.
  • The river is joined by Brahmaputra and finally forms the world’s largest delta called the Ganga-Brahmaputra delta or the Sundarbans delta at the mouth near Bay of Bengal.
  • The length of Ganga river is 2500 km.
c)Brahmaputra River System
  • Source- Tibet , east of mansarowar lake. 
  • Slightly longer than Indus.
  • Takes u-turn at Namachabarwa forming a gorge, here it is called Dihang and joined by tributaries like Dihang and Lohit.
  • It carries silt which results in less volume and depth of the river.
  • gains more water in the heavy rainfall region of India
  •  Brahmaputra forms a riverine in Assam- (divided into 2 channels) forming an island called Majuli.   Frequently this river if affected by floods in Assam causes heavy devastations
·        Silt deposits in the bed- shifts the channel of the river  frequently.


(Note : Refer text book and make your short notes using the following hints)
a)The Peninsular rivers:

-rivers originate from western- ghats.
-eg: Godavari, Mahanadi, Krishna, Kaveri  etc.(makes delta) drains into Bay of Bengal.
- Narmada, Tapi flows westwards (makeestuaries). They get water due to rainfall. The rivers of south India are non-perennial.

b)Narmada-

Source- Amarkantak Hills (M.P) –  moves Westwards -  feature- rift Valley- Marble rocks near Jobalpur- flows through a deep gorge and the Dhuadhar falls- short tributaries- joins at right angles – covers Gujarat and M.P

c)Tapi:.
Source- satpura ranges (Betul district M.P) flows in a rift valley parallel to Narmada (shorter in length.- (covers – M.P , Gujarat ,Maharastra other west flowing rivers are sabarmati , Mabi  Bharathpura and Periyar.

d).Godavari.Largest Peninsular river- source – western Ghats- Nasik district (Maharastra)Length-1500 km- Bay of Bengal. Also called as Dakshin Ganga.

e)The Krishna Basin: Source – Spring of Mahabaleshwar distance -1400 km Trib- Tingabadra, Koyana Ghat prabha,Musi- Bhima – Maharashtra, Karnataka , A.P

d)The Kaveri Basin: Source- Brahmagiri  Range (W.G)- Bay of Bengal in south of cuddalore in TamilNadu.
Length- 760Km main tributaries- Amaravati Bhavani, Hemavati and Kalvini (Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu)
-         Second Biggest water falls- Sivasamudram
-         Hydro electric supply to Mysore, Bangalore and the kolar gold field.

9. Describe the characteristics of lakes, their importance and and source of origin.
Lakes may be natural or artificial, fresh water lake or salt water lake and big or small. They add beauty to the surroundings.
Examples: Dal Lake, Lakes of Kashmir, Nainital.
Lakes of large extent are called the seas like Caspian, the Dead and the Aral sea.
Characteristics of Indian lakes:
  1. They differ in size.
  2. Most lakes are permanent.
Source of water: Rainfall, Glaciers, spring, ice sheets,
Natural lakes:  are formed due to wind, river, action and human activities.
Example:  meandering river in the flood plains make ox- bow lakes.
Spits and bars form lagoons in the coastal area eg:- Chilk lake, pulicate, Kolleru Lake. Some lakes are seasonal eg: sambar lake in Rajasthan which is a salt water lake- water is used for producing salt.
Fresh water lakes are found in Himalayan region eg: Wular lakes in J&K (cause due to tectonic activity) largest fresh water lakes in India.
Other fresh water lakes are – Dal Lake, Bhimta,, Nainital., Loktak, Barapain,

Artificial lakes:
     Damming generation of electricity has created huge lakes eg: Guru Grobind Sagar,    (Bakar Nangal project)

10. What are the uses of Lakes?
1.  Help  to regulates the flow of a river 2. Prevents  flooding dury heavy rains.3. develops hydel power.4. Moderates  the climate. 5. Natural beauty 6. Maintains eco system, enhance natural beuty 7. Tourism 8. Recreation.

11. Discuss the role of rivers in Economy.
  • Have fundamental importance in human history. Human beings are settled since ancient past along the river valleys. Example Harappa, Mohenjodaro.
  •  Hydro Electricity is produced and help in the promotion of economy.
  •  Navigation is done in deep perennial rivers.
  • used in agriculture.

12. How are river pollution caused? How does pollution affect in general?
  • Domestic, Municipal, industrial effluents affect the quality of water.
  • Untreated sewage, industrial effluents  emptied into the rivers affect the acquatic life.
  • Affects the self treating quality of water (eg: Ganga water is  able to distute and assimilate pollution loads within 20km of large cities but due to over pollution the water has lost its quality)
  • Affects the health the people.

National River convervation Plan (read the box message from text book from page 23)




   


   

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